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This new calculator reveals your real-world CO2 emissions

 CO2 emissions

Car leasing specialist AMT has created a new calculator that lets motorists work out how much CO2 emissions their cars are pumping out over the course of their usage. 

The calculator uses AMT’s in-house data on 15,000 different cars to provide an estimate on daily driving emissions, as well as for longer periods. Put your miles in, both per day and over the course of its life, and you’ll get daily and lifetime emissions calculations.

A diesel Renault Megane, for example, will emit 3,443,988 grams (yes, that’s over 3.4 million grams) of CO2 over the course of 20,000 miles. Over a day of doing 100 miles, it’ll emit 17,220 grams.

emissions calculator

There’s also a league table of 51 different manufacturers in order of which is most and least polluting based on cumulative emissions from across the range.

Predictably, Tesla tops the table for the least-polluting. You don’t need a calculator to work out an electric car produces no emissions, both on paper and in the real world. City car manufacturer Smart and DS Automobiles follow it.

At the bottom of the table, no surprises here, none other than the Raging Bull Lamborghini, which on average produces 347g/km, followed closely by Bentley and Rolls-Royce. McLaren in 46th and Aston Martin in 47th lead Ferrari, Bentley, Rolls and Lambo, impressively, with 252g/km and 272g/km respectively.

Of the main trio of German executive manufacturers, BMW and Audi jointly lead in 16th and 17th with 133g/km. Mercedes is all the way down in 36th, with 174g/km.

CO2 emissions ‘pooling’ could make Tesla millions

Emissions pooling

Car manufacturers such as Tesla and Fiat are said to be considering ‘pooling’ their fleet emissions, in an effort to meet upcoming stringent European average CO2 targets.

The practice is legal under EU rules, and could help car companies avoid punitive fines from 2021.

What is emissions pooling?

Pooling is when two manufacturers combine their sales fleets in order to dip below the required emissions target. In this case, the target is 95 g/km of CO2 in 2021.

The fine for not doing so is £82 (€95) for every gram per kilometre of CO2 over the target, for every one of those cars sold. The costs to volume manufacturers who do not get their average emissions down to the target figure is therefore potentially enormous.

This is where ‘pooling’ comes in, something that under current EU rules, is perfectly legal. At present, it is understood Tesla will be partnering with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) in order to gain credits.

Obviously, Teslas are all-electric vehicles and, as such, are zero-emissions. Paying Tesla a handsome fee to help out would be expensive, but could cost FCA a great deal less than the fines it may have to pay come 2021.

According to the Financial Times, that fee could be in the “hundreds of millions”. That might just be the easiest chunk of money ever made in the automotive industry.

What exactly are carmakers up against?

diesel filler cap

At present, manufacturers are fighting a losing battle to lower CO2 emissions. Everything was going smoothly before diesel took a dive post-2015. Diesel was the backbone of the CO2-lowering cause for the better part of 15 years before NOx emissions scandals knocked the wind out of sales.

The diesel market share has fallen to just 1 in 4 new car sales, compared to more than 1 in 2 in 2015.

Higher-CO2 petrol sales have filled the gap, despite commendable advances in technology, thus increasing fleet CO2 averages.

What’s more, the unstoppable popularity of heavy, un-aerodynamic and inefficient (by comparison to conventional cars) SUVs is another factor that’s fanned the flames.

The net result is that figures actually increased from 2017’s 118 g/km average, to 120 g/km in 2018. As they are now moving in the wrong direction, cue investigations into alternative plans – such as emissions pooling…

German carmakers may be fined 1bn Euro EACH for emissions collusion

BMW Mercedes Volkswagen

Daimler, BMW and Volkswagen face fines of up to €1 billion EACH for colluding on reducing the effectiveness of exhaust filtering systems. That’s according to German weekly magazine Der Spiegel.

The German carmakers collaborated to reduce the size of AdBlue tanks and agreed not to include filters on petrol engine vehicles to reduce fine particulate matter, the influential German publication said.

European antitrust authorities are planning to impose heavy fines on the carmakers.

AdBlue is a liquid solution of urea and de-ionised water designed to keep harmful nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in check.  It’s injected into the exhaust system to convert NOx into harmless elements before they’re released into the air.

‘Statement of objections’

Following a four-year investigation, the companies involved will receive a formal ‘statement of objections’, detailing the specific complaints and the alleged breaches of EU competition law. The alleged activities date back more than a decade. 

Reuters said that BMW and the European Commission have declined to comment. Daimler and Volkswagen said they are cooperating with authorities.

As a result of their cooperation, Daimler and Volkswagen are likely to face smaller fines. The EU’s ‘leniency policy’ encourages companies to hand over inside evidence, and the first company to do so will not have to pay a fine.

Companies found guilty of breaching EU cartel rules face fines of up 10 percent of their global revenues. Cartels are illegal under EU competition law and the European Commission takes a strong stance against companies found guilty of collusion.

 

Car CO2 emissions at new five-year high

JATO CO2 emissions

CO2 emissions are at a new five-year high as the popularity of carbon-heavy petrols over diesels increased in the wake of NOx emissions scandals, according to JATO Dynamics.

JATO recorded a rise in 20 of the 23 markets analysed across Europe, observing an average of 120g/km of CO2. For reference, 2015 and 2016 saw drops down from 2014’s 123g/km figure to 119g/km and 117g/km respectively. Once the market shift away from diesel took effect, the change is obvious. A rise to 118g/km in 2017 was followed by a jump to 120.5g/km last year.

Of the 23 markets analysed, only three show an improvement in their CO2 figures in 2018 compared with 2017. Congratulations Norway, the Netherlands and Finland… Norway’s dropped an incredible 11.4g/km, from an already low 83.7g/km to 72.4g/km. The large-scale adoption of electric and other alternative fuel vehicles has had a considerable effect in these regions.

“The introduction of WLTP in September 2018 has been a challenge for the market, as a large number of available vehicles had not been homologated yet,” said Felipe Munoz, JATO’s global analyst.

“The increase in CO2 is certainly worrying and bad news for governments and most carmakers. Instead of moving forwards, the industry is regressing at a time when emissions targets are getting tougher”.

The demonisation of diesel to blame

JATO CO2 emissions

Demand for diesel is recorded as being down by 18 percent in 2018, following the scrutiny of the fuel after scandals such as dieselgate and a focus on nitrogen oxide emissions.

“The positive effect of diesel cars on emissions has faded away as their demand has dropped dramatically during the last year,” follows Munoz.

“If this trend continues and the adoption of alternative fuelled vehicles doesn’t accelerate, the industry will need to take more drastic measures in order to meet the short-term targets.”

SUV popularity not helping

It’s not all to do with the drop in diesel sales, though. JATO is suggesting that the rise in popularity of SUVs has contributed to the jump in CO2 figures. As many as 16 new models debuted in the SUV segment, while SUV CO2 numbers worsened by 1.4g/km on average.

Remember that when you consider that the SUV segment was the only to register an overall positive change last year. SUVs accounted for 35 percent of passenger car sales, as city cars and subcompacts reduced in sales by 1.5 percent.

New diesel cars that emit almost ZERO NOx

ADAC emissions testing

It’s a breath of fresh air, if you will, to report some positive news about diesel. ADAC, the German equivalent of the RAC, has uncovered just how clean new clean diesels can be.

The answer? They’re all but NOx-free, with results indicating new Euro 6d diesels are, on average, over eight-times cleaner than the on-road standard, as recorded over a variety of tests.

ADAC has been stringently testing some modern diesels for emissions, using new test conditions and methodology, as well as real-world testing, to yield results that better represent what these cars are actually emitting. They’re promising, with NOx and CO2 readings coming back well within mandated limits.

Putting diesel to the test

On top of the new testing procedures, ADAC added an extra level of difficulty. The cars tested, which included a BMW X2, Peugeot 308, Volvo XC60 and more, were loaded up with 200kg of weight, had the air-con put on full blast and were subjected to a highway cycle. Included in testing was a measurement of exhaust gases during average on-road driving. No cheating the system here…

Not that it would be necessary. As above, the new clean diesels flew through without a hitch. For reference, the regulatory high standard (on a test bench) we’re looking for is below an average of 80mg/km. For road testing, it’s 168 mg/km.

The latest cleaning technology, including selective catalytic reduction and on-demand urea injection, kept the cars comfortably within nitrogen oxide standards. The BMW and Peugeot, running the 20d diesel engine and 2.0 BlueHDi engine respectively, both Euro 6d standard, were particular star performers.

The Peugeot in the WLTC test, Real Drive Emission (RDE), ADAC Ecotest and Autobahn test, got a high recording of 45 mg/km. The BMW got a high of 84 mg/km during the Autobahn testing but massively excelled in the other tests, with a low of just 13 mg/km in the WLTC test.

Both the Peugeot and the BMW produce averages well under 80 over the course of a strong variety of tests, including on-road testing. The Volvo didn’t have it quite so easily. The first three tests saw it perform adequately, but the Autobahn test saw a spike, at 239mg/km. The cause? Good old consumption of fuel – the Volvo used over a litre/100km more than the Peugeot and the X2 during the ADAC Ecotest.

Cold weather NOx testing – almost ZERO?

ADAC diesel emissions testing

Cold weather is generally considered to worsen NOx emissions. Tests that included a BMW 520d touring, Citroen Berlingo BlueHDi and an Opel Astra 1.6 D yielded some incredible results.

All three scored under 10mg/km of NOx. The BMW and the Astra registered just one mg/km. The Citroen scored seven mg/km. The highest score out of seven cars tested, by 16mg/km, was the Volvo, with 56 mg/km.

So what’s the overall result?

Overall, the average NOx recording for Euro 6d TEMP-standard diesel cars, over the course of a variety of tests including lab conditions, the real world and cold-weather, was 20mg/km. The real world standard is 168 mg/km. There you have it. An on-average standard that’s 8.4-times lower than the real world standard.

Europe warns reducing car emissions won’t be easy

EU Auditors emissions

In the four years since the Volkswagen ‘Dieselgate’ scandal, legislation has tightened around car exhaust emissions.

The changes are positive, so says the European Court of Auditors, but challenges remain in the implementation and enforcement of these rules.

Dieselgate response

After Dieselgate, the European Parliament set up an inquiry into emissions data acquisition, while the European Commission said it was going to shore up emissions data banks and resources

Emissions checks were changed, too, with reviews now possible into type-approval authorities as well as test vehicles. There are also now powers to withdraw or suspend type-approvals and impose penalties.

Testing is mandatory for all cars sold in EU counties and they must be available for third-party testing at any time. CO2 and NOx-focused emissions tests have also been introduced.

New rules, new challenges

EU Auditors emissions

The European Court of Auditors admits these changes are still fresh and says trying to measure their efficacy so soon would be unfair. 

Nevertheless, its urges vigilance to avoid a repeat of the same mistakes and/or deception, saying all countries in the EU must be united in their approach.

It adds that while third-party testing should be another level of scrutiny for the car industry, we won’t know its efficacy until such tests are realised. 

EU Auditors emissions

“We welcome the fact that the actions have been taken, but it may take many years to improve inner-city air quality, given the large number of highly-polluting cars already on the roads,” said Samo Jereb of the European Court of Auditors.

“Even though more than 10 million vehicles have been recalled so far, the limited data available indicates that the impact on NOx emissions has been small.”

The Motoring Research view

The spotlight the Volkswagen Group’s transgressions brought on the motor industry isn’t going away. Dieselgate was a scandal and it may not be the last. The ECA is right to highlight that regulatory bodies should remain vigilant.

We suspect that in 15 years, when the car market is dominated by EVs, this will seem like the distant past. For now, though, legislators and manufacturers can’t be too careful.

CO2 Emissions

Petrol and diesel ban is needed by 2030 to meet global warming targets

CO2 Emissions 2030

A report by the Guardian newspaper reveals how climate change targets set in the Paris agreement will only be met if oil-burning cars are banned by 2030 – 10 years sooner than the government’s 2040 target. Countries including India, Germany and the Netherlands have already set their targets for 2030.

The target is less of a go-to number and more of a global warming limit – set as a maximum of 1.5 degrees centigrade above pre-industrial levels by 2100.

To put the issue into perspective, a study by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), cited by the Guardian, claims a 2030 petrol and diesel car ban would be required for a little over 50 percent chance of not exceeding this maximum temperature change.

On the way to that, the number of oil-burning cars sold by 2022 would need to be as low as five million, versus 15 million sold this year. The study imagines that the last oil-burning car would be sold in 2028, and that they’d be fully legislated off the roads by 2040.

CO2 Emissions 2030

“Auto CO2-emissions need to peak as soon as possible,” said Professor Horst Friedrich, director of the DLR.

“Looking at the dwindling carbon budget, it is crucial to push low-emitting cars into the market – the earlier the better, to renew the fleet.”

We think the 2030 target seems unrealistic, barring an extreme hike in the offering and uptake of low- and zero-emissions vehicles. The rate of change is difficult to predict and, truthfully, out of the control of both manufacturers and legislators. It’s down to the former to offer products that appeal to the masses and the latter to install and upgrade infrastructure to suit.

Read more:

Dirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Dirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Dirty diesels: most polluting cars revealedDiesel emissions testing carried out by Which? has revealed the worst diesel cars for air pollution. The figures highlight a huge variation across the industry, with the worst offenders emitting up to nine times the level of dangerous pollutants permitted in official tests. Read on to discover more about the dirtiest diesels and how Which? conducted the tests.

There are emission laws in place to limit the amount of NOx produced by cars, but Which? has uncovered huge differences in the amount of NOx emissions produced by diesel cars from different brands. Crucially, Which? uses real-world tests, replicating the way drivers really drive their cars.

Which? has provided the averages for diesel cars tested between 2012 and 2016, with the results based on data for Euro 5 compliant cars, rather than the stricter Euro 6 emission limit. The results are presented in reverse order, with Euro 6 information included where applicable.

21. Mitsubishi: 0.31 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

The Euro 5 diesel limit is 0.18g/km of NOx, which means even the cleanest car on the list fails to meet the target. The Which? data is more accurate as the tests use more realistic cycles, including motorway testing, where the car is accelerated to and then sustains motorway speeds.

20. SEAT: 0.32 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Of the figures, Richard Headland, Which? magazine editor, said: “While our tests show that some car manufacturers are making progress on reducing the amount of toxic emissions from their models, many have a long way to go in cleaning up their act.”

SEAT, Euro 6: 0.11 NOx g/km.

19. Audi: 0.33 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Headland continued: “We hope that the improved official tests brought in later this year will more clearly name and shame those manufacturers that are failing to meet their obligation to lower emissions.”

Audi, Euro 6: 0.15 NOx g/km.

18. Skoda: 0.33 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

The improvements mentioned by Richard Headland refer to the World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP), which replaces the much-criticised New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). In a nutshell, WLTP will introduce stricter controls and cycles to reflect normal driving behaviour.

Skoda, Euro 6: 0.14 NOx g/km.

17. Volkswagen: 0.34 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the NOx figures for SEAT, Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen are within 0.2g/km of each other. As Which? points out, the Euro 5 diesel cars tested are part of the ongoing VW emissions investigation, so a question mark remains over the results.

Volkswagen, Euro 6: 0.11 NOx g/km.

16. Volvo: 0.40 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Which? says it recorded a (comparatively) low NOx average across the seven Euro 5 Volvos it tested, but the four Euro 6 Volvo cars actually emit more NOx than the Euro 5 vehicles.

Volvo, Euro 6: 0.43 NOx g/km.

15. Toyota 0.40 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Toyota performed well, with the Euro 6 figure even lower at 0.13g/km. However, this is still higher than the 0.08g/km European limit for Euro 6 vehicles.

Toyota, Euro 6: 0.13 NOx g/km.

14. BMW: 0.41 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Which? is quick to praise BMW and MINI, saying that the 33 cars tested produced some of the lowest NOx averages for diesel cars. While MINI doesn’t feature in the Euro 5 results, it did produce the best result for Euro 6 compliant cars. A figure of 0.08g/km means it just meets the European target.

BMW, Euro 6: 0.14 NOx g/km.

13. Honda: 0.45 NOx g/mDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

To produce the figures, Which? analysed 278 diesel cars from leading manufacturers between 2012 and 2016. Five Honda vehicles were tested, producing a result of 0.45 NOx g/km.

12. Vauxhall: 0.46 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Other brands for which only Euro 6 compliant cars are tested include Dacia (0.59g/km), DS Automobiles (0.26g/km), Mazda (0.21g/km) and Jaguar (0.18g/km). Meanwhile, in the Euro 5 table, Vauxhall achieves a figure of 0.46g/km.

Vauxhall, Euro 6: 0.25 NOx g/km.

 

11. Fiat 0.48 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Meanwhile, four Fiats were tested, with a result of 0.48 NOx g/km.

10. Mercedes-Benz: 0.48 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

A total of 17 Mercedes-Benz cars were tested (7 Euro 5 and 17 Euro 6), with a Euro 5 result of 0.48g/km.

Mercedes-Benz, Euro 6: 0.15 NOx g/km.

9. Peugeot: 0.52 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Peugeot finishes 9th in the Euro 5 table, making it the best performing French brand on the list. Its Euro 6 performance is one of the best recorded by Which?.

Peugeot, Euro 6: 0.11 NOx g/km.

8. Kia: 0.53 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Kia finishes eighth, with a NOx figure of 0.53g/km.

Kia, Euro 6: 0.29 NOx g/km.

7. Citroen: 0.56 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Slightly behind Kia we find Citroen, with a NOx figure of 0.56g/km.

Citroen, Euro 6: NOx 0.16g/km.

6. Ford: 0.58 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

There’s not a huge amount of difference between Ford’s Euro 5 and Euro 6 figure, with the more lax Euro 5 test revealing an output of 0.58g/km.

Ford, Euro 6: 0.49 NOx g/km.

5. Hyundai: 0.60 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Hyundai is committed to delivering 14 or more new environmentally-focused models by 2020, which should go some way to improving this top five finish.

Hyundai, Euro 6: 0.40 NOx g/km.

4. Renault: 0.73 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

NOx emissions from the 16 Renault diesel cars tested are seven times higher than the Euro 6 MINIs tested. In response, Renault said: “Since mid-2015, Groupe Renault has committed to improve the performance of its anti-pollution systems. The vehicles tested by Which? would not have benefitted from this improvement plan”.

Renault, Euro 6: 0.72 NOx g/km.

3. Land Rover: 0.78 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

In third place is Land Rover, which was one of six manufacturers for which the consumer group only has average figures for Euro 5 compliant cars.

2. Nissan: 0.81 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

In response to the results, Nissan said: “We are committed to upholding the law and meeting regulations in every market where we operate. Specifically in Europe, all our vehicles sold in Europe meet the Euro 5/6 emission standards. This report, which looks at the variation between lab and ‘real world’ conditions, shows significant variances for most brands tested”.

1. Jeep: 1.74 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

That leaves Jeep to secure the unwanted position at the top of the dirty diesels tree. Jeep failed to provide a response to the research.

SMMT warns that 'anti-diesel agenda' will hit falling CO2 emissions

SMMT warns that ‘anti-diesel agenda’ will hit falling CO2 emissions

SMMT warns that 'anti-diesel agenda' will hit falling CO2 emissions

The average CO2 emissions produced by new cars fell to a record low of 120.1g/km last year – but the trade body behind the data has issued a stern warning that this could change in 2017 as diesel resentment builds and motorists buy more petrol cars.

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) has said that the shift towards diesel cars, which emit around 20% less CO2 than the equivalent petrol car on average, is partly responsible for average new car CO2 emissions falling by more than a third since 2000.

While diesel car registrations hit a record high in the UK last year, diesel’s market share fell by 0.8%. And these ‘tremendous’ gains could be wiped out as many drivers look to swap back to petrol models following Volkswagen’s diesel emissions scandal and increasing NOx pollution levels in urban areas, says the SMMT.

“The automotive industry has some of the most challenging CO2 reduction targets of any sector and continues to deliver reductions as it has for nearly two decades,” said SMMT chief executive, Mike Hawes.

The organisation is concerned that new VED (vehicle excise duty – car tax) rules to be introduced on April 1 will wipe out incentives for motorists to buy ultra-low emission vehicles such as electric, hybrid or hydrogen-powered cars.

Under the new system, two thirds (66%) of the alternative fuel vehicles currently eligible for free road tax will be subject to an annual charge of £130. Those with a list price of more than £40,000 will be subject to a further £310 surcharge for the first five years.

Hawes added: “For this positive trend to continue, modern low emission diesels and AFVs such as plug-ins, hydrogen and hybrids must be encouraged with long term incentives. Turning our back on any of these will undermine progress on CO2 targets as well as air quality objectives. The UK has a successful track record in encouraging these new technologies but this must be maintained through a consistent approach to fiscal and other incentives.”

SMMT warns that 'anti-diesel agenda' will hit falling CO2 emissions

SMMT warns that 'anti-diesel agenda' will hit falling CO2 emissions

SMMT warns that 'anti-diesel agenda' will hit falling CO2 emissions

The average CO2 emissions produced by new cars fell to a record low of 120.1g/km last year – but the trade body behind the data has issued a stern warning that this could change in 2017 as diesel resentment builds and motorists buy more petrol cars.

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) has said that the shift towards diesel cars, which emit around 20% less CO2 than the equivalent petrol car on average, is partly responsible for average new car CO2 emissions falling by more than a third since 2000.

While diesel car registrations hit a record high in the UK last year, diesel’s market share fell by 0.8%. And these ‘tremendous’ gains could be wiped out as many drivers look to swap back to petrol models following Volkswagen’s diesel emissions scandal and increasing NOx pollution levels in urban areas, says the SMMT.

“The automotive industry has some of the most challenging CO2 reduction targets of any sector and continues to deliver reductions as it has for nearly two decades,” said SMMT chief executive, Mike Hawes.

The organisation is concerned that new VED (vehicle excise duty – car tax) rules to be introduced on April 1 will wipe out incentives for motorists to buy ultra-low emission vehicles such as electric, hybrid or hydrogen-powered cars.

Under the new system, two thirds (66%) of the alternative fuel vehicles currently eligible for free road tax will be subject to an annual charge of £130. Those with a list price of more than £40,000 will be subject to a further £310 surcharge for the first five years.

Hawes added: “For this positive trend to continue, modern low emission diesels and AFVs such as plug-ins, hydrogen and hybrids must be encouraged with long term incentives. Turning our back on any of these will undermine progress on CO2 targets as well as air quality objectives. The UK has a successful track record in encouraging these new technologies but this must be maintained through a consistent approach to fiscal and other incentives.”