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September launch for the Leeds Clean Air Zone

The Leeds Clean Air Zone (CAZ) will go live on 28 September 2020. The CAZ was due to come into operation in January, but Leeds City Council has confirmed the new date.

From 28 September, buses, coaches, heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), taxis and private hire vehicles that fail to meet minimum emissions standards will be charged for entering certain parts of the city.

Non-compliant HGVs, buses and coaches will be charged £50 per day for entering the CAZ, with taxis and private hire vehicles subject to a £12.50 daily charge. Leeds City Council says the money will be used for covering the cost of the scheme, supporting owners of affected vehicles and the creation of other air improvement measures in the city.

Around 300 cameras will be placed at 100 junctions throughout the city.

Since plans for a CAZ were announced, the city has seen ‘significant improvements in air quality’ as operators prepare for the zone’s introduction. The council says air pollution on the A660 has fallen below legal limits as a result of lower emission buses being used on the route.

To date, £5.4 million has been awarded to support local businesses switch to cleaner vehicles, with an additional £3.1 million earmarked to help other operators.

Leeds Clean Air Zone map

As can be seen from this map, the Leeds CAZ extends from Farsley in the west to Colton in the east, and Moortown in the north to Hunslet in the south. These are approximate boundaries, so you’re advised to check the map for more information.

The Holbeck (Jack Lane), Pudsey and Seacroft industrial areas will be exempt from CAZ charges until after 31 December 2024.

‘Time for businesses to prepare’

James Lewis, the council executive for air quality, said: “Having been forced to delay the introduction of the zone last year due to delays to government systems, I am delighted that we are now able to confirm a go-live date for the Leeds Clean Air Charging Zone giving affected businesses clarity to help them prepare for the zone’s introduction.

“We’re already seeing improvements to our city’s air quality thanks to the thousands of drivers that have already switched to less-polluting vehicles. As more businesses switch to cleaner vehicles to avoid charges we will no doubt continue to deliver even more improvements.

“With six months before the zone takes effect, it is now time for businesses to prepare. I would strongly encourage those who may be affected to check their vehicle and find out more about the financial support and exemptions available by visiting our website.”

The Birmingham Clean Air Zone is expected to launch in July. Last week, the council opened applications for temporary exemption permits. Click here to read more about Clean Air Zones.

Uber and taxi users would pay more for an electric ride

People willing to pay more for electric taxis

The majority of Uber and taxi drivers would be willing to pay extra for a cleaner ride. That’s according to a recent YouGov poll.  

It found that more than half (52 percent) of customers in seven European countries would be happy to pay a premium to travel in an electric car. An additional 15-20 cents per km, to be precise. That’s the equivalent of 13 to 17p per kilometre travelled.

Younger users (18-24) are more likely to embrace an additional charge for a zero-emission taxi. Six out of 10 said they’d pay more.

There’s an increasing awareness of Uber’s impact on pollution. In London, 44 percent of the respondents to the online survey said Uber has a negative impact on the air quality in the capital. Similarly, a third of Parisians said Uber is having a negative effect on pollution levels in the city.

Yoann Le Petit, new mobility expert at campaigning group Transport & Environment (T&E), said: “Uber’s customers are wise to its air pollution and are even willing to chip in for a clean ride. Now Uber must do its fair share for the climate and our health. Thus, the #TrueCostOfUber campaign urges the company to electrify its fleet in its 10 biggest European cities by 2025.” 

Uber London emissions

T&E says the emissions of the taxi and ride-hailing market in London and Paris is the equivalent of adding an extra 250,000 privately owned cars to the road. French government data shows that 90 percent of the registered private hire vehicles are powered by a diesel engine.

Uber has 3.6 million users in London and 2.7 million customers in France. T&E is urging candidates in the Mayor of Paris campaign to commit to reducing Uber emissions if elected.

‘Uber has no excuse’

Olivier Blond, president of Respire, the national association focused on air quality improvement, said: “With 78 percent of young people saying they’re ready to pay a little more for zero-emissions cars, Uber has no excuse for not upping its game, abandoning diesel now and switching to 100 percent clean vehicles.”

The sample size of the YouGov survey was 12,523 adults from the UK, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Netherlands and Belgium. 

Tyre emissions 1,000 times WORSE than exhausts

Tyre emissions can be 1,000 times those allowed from exhausts

With modern diesel exhaust emissions lower than ever, attention is turning to other forms of pollution. More specifically, tyre wear.

According to Emissions Analytics, tyres are a major contributor to arguably the biggest source of pollutant emissions from cars today: non-exhaust sources.

This is dust and particulates that are emitted from our tyres constantly – and our brakes when we use them. This currently unregulated source of pollution contributes to particulates in the air, as well as microplastics in the ocean.

Excessive tyre emissions: theory and testingTyre emissions can be 1,000 times those allowed from exhausts

The UK Government’s Air Quality Expert Group recently concluded that “non-exhaust emissions are recognised as a source of ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter, even for vehicles with zero exhaust emissions of particles”.

Emissions Analytics theorised that, based on 1.5kgs of mass being lost per tyre over a 30,000-mile life, a car emits 200 milligrams of tyre particulate matter every kilometre. At that level, tyre emissions would be 22 times higher than the permitted levels in current exhaust gas regulations, which are 4.5mg/km.

In testing, it stacked the odds up in case practice yielded immeasurably low results. Low quality tyres, high speeds, intense cornering, high load in the car and a poor surface quality, were intended to help produce a measurable result. The results were shocking – 5.8 grams per kilometre lost. That’s 29 times the hypothesised result, and more than 1,000-times the allowed particulate emissions from an exhaust pipe. 

Tyre emissions can be 1,000 times those allowed from exhausts

This is a worst-case scenario, though many real-world factors weren’t influencers. The tyres were appropriately inflated, whereas many aren’t in the ‘real world’. Surface quality varies from good to bad. Speed limits are often broken and, of course, budget tyres are a commonplace cost-saving measure made by motorists, against expert recommendations. 

Much of what comes off our tyres are comparatively large chunks, compared with the ultrafine ‘soot’ that comes from exhausts. PM10 or above, up to 10,000nm in size, is however joined by particles down to 10nm, due to the heat generated by tyres when in use. For reference, tailpipe emissions are described as ‘mostly below 100nm’. Regardless, even including larger chunks, the resulting pollution is both ground and watercourse-based microplastics (the larger bits) and fine particles that comprise air quality.

These results are worrying, in a world where heavy SUVs are proliferating on ever-more aggressively-worked tyres that are growing in size by the year. It’s Emissions Analytics’ belief that tyres won’t be unregulated for too much longer.

One in 19 urban deaths linked to air pollution

deaths linked to toxic air pollution cities

A new study estimates that more than one in every 19 deaths in UK cities is related to air pollution. That makes  air pollution 25 times more deadly than road traffic incidents, in terms of the numbers killed.

The Cities Outlook study, conducted annually by Centre for Cities, refers specifically to urban areas, where the levels of PM2.5 particulates are mostly well above World Health Organisation guidelines. At present, these are not illegal levels in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Overall, 62 percent of roads that are monitored in UK cities exceed WHO guidelines for PM2.5. And 19 of the UK’s city road networks breach those guidelines entirely. That means all city streets are above safe pollution levels – an issue that affects 14 million people across Britain.

‘Transport is a significant, but not sole contributor’

deaths linked to toxic air pollution cities

Centre for cities, while highlighting the issue around transport emissions, cited other causes for high levels in cities. Fuel burning, such as in wood burning stoves and coal fires, is claimed to account for half of PM2.5 particulates in urban areas. Not all is locally generated either, as the south of England (a problem area) suffers with emissions blown in from Europe.

 

Cities with the most and least estimated PM2.5-related deaths
Most deaths Least deaths
Rank City PM2.5-related deaths, of total deaths Rank City PM2.5-related deaths, of total deaths
1 London 6.4% 1 Aberdeen 3.0%
2 Slough 6.4% 2 Dundee 3.1%
3 Chatham 6.3% 3 Glasgow 3.4%
4 Luton 6.2% 4 Blackpool 3.5%
5 Portsmouth 5.9% 5 Edinburgh 3.7%
Deaths in people aged 25 and over, 2017

‘Extra money and stricter guidelines’ 

“More than half of people in the UK live in cities and large towns,” said Andrew Carter, chief executive of Centre for Cities.

“Cities Outlook 2020 shows that they are having a damaging effect on their health, with air pollution killing thousands of people living in cities every year.

deaths linked to toxic air pollution cities

“Cities should be at the centre of the fight against toxic air and councils should take the steps needed, including charging people to drive in city centres and banning wood burning stoves.

“To help the Government needs to provide extra money and introduce stricter guidelines. The deadly levels of polluted air we’re breathing are legal across most of the UK. This needs to change. Failure to act now will lead to more deaths.”

New cat’s eye-style filters could tackle pollution

Cat's eye toxic air filters

The war on toxic air pollution is yielding some clever ideas. The latest is suction fans embedded in the road in the same manner as cat’s eye reflectors. These would be hooked up to a filtration system to clean the air.

The idea is that low energy fans installed in the road can quite literally suck toxic air into piping. That would then feed into a filter unit at the side of the road. It’d be around the size of a large bin.

Cat's eye toxic air filters

Areas to benefit the most from this would be junctions with lots of stationary traffic. The system is being developed by Hertfordshire-based company Pollution Solution.

The company claims it could remove at least 30 percent of toxic pollutants from the air. That includes engine pollution like nitrogen oxide, as well as brake and tyre particulates. The air that leaves the filter ‘bins’ is said to be 99 percent clean. The company says the system can run mostly on solar power, triggering only when it senses cars have stopped.

Initial trials of the technology could take place in problem pollution areas in East London. Engine idling hotspots would be targeted. School pick-up and drop-off areas, busy junctions and pedestrian crossings are cited as ideal places to start.

Pollution Solution founder Thomas Delgado is realistic about what can be achieved with the technology and the specific areas where it will be most effective. With that said, he’s also clear that this or something to the effect of cleaning air quality is necessary now, given the estimated 40,000 premature deaths per year that can be linked to air pollution.

‘Electric cars are great’

Cat's eye toxic air filters

Delgado said: “This is only going to be effective at busy junctions but all the information we have is that those hotspots are the areas that really need to be tackled.

“Electric cars are great but as it stands today, they are not a feasible option for the majority of consumers or companies and air quality needs to improve now.

“There are talks of banning the sale of fossil-fuelled vehicles by the year 2040 but if we don’t take steps in the interim it is inevitable that people will die unnecessarily.”

Dirty vehicles to be banned from Geneva

Dirty vehicles to be banned from Geneva

A new environmental zone will see the dirtiest vehicles banned from the centre of Geneva, Switzerland, and the surrounding area.

From 15 January 2020, a temporary zone will be activated when air pollution in the Swiss city is at its highest. It will be operational from 6am until 10pm.

Vehicles will be measured on their environmental performance and must display one of six coloured Stick’Air vignettes. Green is for zero emission vehicles, while grey is for the least environmentally friendly cars. The emergency services and drivers with disabilities are exempt from the scheme.

Initially, vehicles displaying the grey vignette will be banned from the environmental zone during the period of peak pollution. If the smog persists, the ban will extend to vehicles showing the brown sticker, then orange, yellow and purple.

The stickers cost 5 Swiss francs (£4) and are valid for the life of the vehicle. Drivers who do not display a vignette or enter the city during the smog alert will be fined 500 francs (£400). Commercial vehicles will be granted a two-year transitional period to comply with the new law.

Under the regulations, the authorities could also introduce an 80km/h (50mph) speed limit on surrounding motorways, free public transport to encourage locals and tourists to leave their cars at home, and a ban on outdoor fires.

Geneva clean air stickers

‘Right to breathe healthy air’

Antonio Hodgers, a Geneva councillor, said: “We have adopted a compromise between economic freedom and the right to breathe healthy air.”

Nearly 500,000 people live in the canton of Geneva, with around 200,000 people living in the city. This is the first environmental zone of its kind in the country, although Geneva’s proximity to France and Italy, plus the fact that it is home to more than 130 multinational companies, makes it a particularly high profile case.

It also plays host to a major international motor show

The stickers can be purchased from council offices and petrol stations. More information can be found here.

Car tyres a ‘stealthy source‘ of ocean pollution

Car tyres a stealthy source of ocean pollution

“Tyres sit uniquely at the intersection of air quality and microplastics.” That’s the opinion of Emissions Analytics, which is seeking to raise awareness of the impact vehicles tyres are having on our oceans.

Think of plastic waste and most people will picture bottles, packaging, bags – maybe even tea bags and clothes. But tyres are a major source of microplastics found in our oceans, and the problem is only going to get worse.

Emissions Analytics names three emerging threats: budget tyres, electric vehicles and SUVs.

According to an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) study in 2017, between 15 and 31 percent of the 9.5 million tonnes of plastics released into the oceans each year could be primary microplastics.

Two-thirds of which come from the washing of synthetic textiles and the abrasion of tyres while driving.

In the same year, a study by Pieter Jan Kole at the Open University of The Netherlands put the figure at 10 percent. “Tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases,” was the rather stark conclusion.

‘Big chunks of plastic’

Car tyre wear

The lack of awareness stems from a general misunderstanding of the composition of a modern tyre. “Tyres are essentially yet more big chunks of plastic,” says Friends of the Earth. “When they break down they behave and persist like other plastics in the environment.”

Emissions Analytics claims that over the course of 12,500 to 31,000 miles, a typical tyre will shed 10 to 30 percent of its tread rubber into the environment. Particles will end up by the roadside or washed into drains, which in turn takes the pollution into rivers and the ocean.

Just as concerning is the fact that Friends of the Earth estimates that up to 10 percent of tyre wear is generated as airborne particles, which contribute to air quality issues and lung problems.

The IUCN report refers to data that says while there is no reliable information on the transfer of microplastics from tyres to the world’s oceans, both Norwegian and Swedish researchers have pointed out that a large fraction of particles found in the sea seem to originate from car tyres.

Tyres and our oceans: emerging threats

SUV tyre next to the water

What about the emerging threats?

Emissions Analytics points to the fact that budget tyres wear rapidly and have high emissions. It also says that the instant torque and higher kerb weights associated with electric vehicles will increase wear rates, adding to the pollution issue.

The increased weight is also a factor associated with SUVs, along with the typically larger wheel sizes adopted by such vehicles. The larger the tyres, the greater the problem.

“On this basis we think tyres are set to be scrutinised and regulated more, and perhaps also reinvented for electric cars to perform well in durability and noise. There will be opportunities and threats that arise from these changes,” says Emissions Analytics.

It is also calling for a review of the European tyre labelling, with the environmental impact added to the ratings for rolling resistance, wet grip and noise.

Tyre fitter with tyre label

Friends of the Earth wants to see a government-backed test to identify how resistant each type of tyre is to wear and tear – with clear labels for buyers. It says tyres with the highest rates of tread abrasion could be banned from sale.

Other suggestions include a tyre levy to help tackle the problem of microplastic pollution, more efficient use of roadside gully pots used to catch debris, and increased road cleaning.

The problem isn’t going to go away. As the IUCN points out, calls for a ban on microbeads in cosmetics are welcome, but this source is responsible for just two percent of primary microplastics. The impact of tyres is far, far greater.

In the UK, we generate up to 19,000 tonnes of microplastics tyre pollution, which finds its way into our waterways, rivers and seas every year. Something to think about next time you’re changing a worn tyre.

Motorists want tougher penalties for idling drivers

Tougher fines for idling drivers

There are calls for drivers who leave their engines running when parked to be fined.

Seventy-two percent of the drivers questioned in a new survey want local councils to tackle the problem, while 44 percent believe officials should have the power to issue fines if they refuse.

Under section 42 of the Road Traffic Act 1988(4), a driver can be fined £20 for a stationary idling offence, but few councils enforce this.

In June, the government announced a public consultation on proposals to impose tougher penalties on idling drivers.

Then transport secretary Chris Grayling said: “We are determined to crack down on drivers who pollute our communities by leaving their engines running, particularly outside school gates where our children are breathing in this toxic air.

“Putting a stop to idling is an easy way to drive down dangerously high levels of pollution, reducing its impact on the environment and our health.”

Cost ahead of the environment

Traffic in Bristol

Around a quarter of the drivers surveyed by the RAC believe motorists should be told to switch off WITHOUT issuing a fine, whereas two percent think offenders should be fined without any warning.

It would appear that drivers are becoming more sensitive to the issue of vehicle emissions and the impact on air quality in our towns and cities. Indeed, more than half of the drivers surveyed said they are more concerned than they were three years ago.

However, when asked WHY they would not leave their engines idling when parked, a financial benefit was put ahead of the environment. Thirty-seven percent said they switch off to save a little on fuel, while 35 percent said they do it to improve air quality.

Just under a third claim it never occurs to them to turn off.

Like the carrier bag charge

delays and congestion up in 2018

Nicholas Lyes, RAC head of roads policy, said: “It is clear from our research that the vast majority of drivers are far more aware of the impact of vehicle emissions than they were three years ago.

“They are conscious of pollution from parked vehicles running their engines needlessly to the point they want to see local councils taking some form of action against those who do this. At the very least they would like a council official to speak to those who do it and ask them to switch off.

“Councils already have the powers to deal with this problem, but few are currently doing so. Many of the drivers we questioned would like to see some firm action taken against offenders. This is no doubt needed to bring about a change in behaviour.

“You could liken the current situation with engine idling to that of taking your own carrier bags to the supermarket: everyone knew it was the right thing to do, but few of us did it until a compulsory charge was introduced. While the law is already in place for idling, enforcement is limited, if not non-existent.

“The presence of enforcement officers and ‘no engine idling’ signs, complete with penalties, must be the next step in making our urban environments better for everyone who lives, drives and works in them.”

Ban cars near schools, says Public Health England

 

School sign

Public Health England is calling for a ban on cars near schools to fight air pollution and keep children safe.

Between 28,000 and 36,000 deaths a year can be attributed to long term emissions exposure, according to Public Health England (PHE), and during the school drop-off, our kids are on the front line.

“Now is our opportunity to create a clean air generation of children, by implementing interventions in a coordinated way,” said Professor Paul Cosford, director of health and protection and medical director at PHE.

“By making new developments clean by design we can create a better environment for everyone, especially our children.”

For a kick-off, the Professor is saying that “we should stop idling outside when children are walking to school.”

What can be done?

In an evidence review published on March 11, PHE suggested a number of interventions for local authorities to take. These include continued promotion of low-emission vehicle uptake, with an increase in targets for electric car charging points and boosting investment in clean public transport while encouraging cycling and walking to improve health.

Also suggested was something of an urban redesign for the UK’s cities, to get pedestrians away from the most polluting roads. A further advancement of low-emission zone implementation with an emphasis on highly populated areas was also a focus.

JATO CO2 emissions

Cosford continues: “We recommend that at a local level, any new policy or programme of work which affects air pollution should aim to deliver an overall benefit to the public’s health.

“So transport and urban planners will need to work together, with others involved in air pollution to ensure that new initiatives have a positive impact.

“Decision makers should carefully design policies, to make sure that the poorest in society are protected against the financial implications of new schemes.”

Dirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Dirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Dirty diesels: most polluting cars revealedDiesel emissions testing carried out by Which? has revealed the worst diesel cars for air pollution. The figures highlight a huge variation across the industry, with the worst offenders emitting up to nine times the level of dangerous pollutants permitted in official tests. Read on to discover more about the dirtiest diesels and how Which? conducted the tests.

There are emission laws in place to limit the amount of NOx produced by cars, but Which? has uncovered huge differences in the amount of NOx emissions produced by diesel cars from different brands. Crucially, Which? uses real-world tests, replicating the way drivers really drive their cars.

Which? has provided the averages for diesel cars tested between 2012 and 2016, with the results based on data for Euro 5 compliant cars, rather than the stricter Euro 6 emission limit. The results are presented in reverse order, with Euro 6 information included where applicable.

21. Mitsubishi: 0.31 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

The Euro 5 diesel limit is 0.18g/km of NOx, which means even the cleanest car on the list fails to meet the target. The Which? data is more accurate as the tests use more realistic cycles, including motorway testing, where the car is accelerated to and then sustains motorway speeds.

20. SEAT: 0.32 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Of the figures, Richard Headland, Which? magazine editor, said: “While our tests show that some car manufacturers are making progress on reducing the amount of toxic emissions from their models, many have a long way to go in cleaning up their act.”

SEAT, Euro 6: 0.11 NOx g/km.

19. Audi: 0.33 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Headland continued: “We hope that the improved official tests brought in later this year will more clearly name and shame those manufacturers that are failing to meet their obligation to lower emissions.”

Audi, Euro 6: 0.15 NOx g/km.

18. Skoda: 0.33 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

The improvements mentioned by Richard Headland refer to the World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP), which replaces the much-criticised New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). In a nutshell, WLTP will introduce stricter controls and cycles to reflect normal driving behaviour.

Skoda, Euro 6: 0.14 NOx g/km.

17. Volkswagen: 0.34 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the NOx figures for SEAT, Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen are within 0.2g/km of each other. As Which? points out, the Euro 5 diesel cars tested are part of the ongoing VW emissions investigation, so a question mark remains over the results.

Volkswagen, Euro 6: 0.11 NOx g/km.

16. Volvo: 0.40 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Which? says it recorded a (comparatively) low NOx average across the seven Euro 5 Volvos it tested, but the four Euro 6 Volvo cars actually emit more NOx than the Euro 5 vehicles.

Volvo, Euro 6: 0.43 NOx g/km.

15. Toyota 0.40 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Toyota performed well, with the Euro 6 figure even lower at 0.13g/km. However, this is still higher than the 0.08g/km European limit for Euro 6 vehicles.

Toyota, Euro 6: 0.13 NOx g/km.

14. BMW: 0.41 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Which? is quick to praise BMW and MINI, saying that the 33 cars tested produced some of the lowest NOx averages for diesel cars. While MINI doesn’t feature in the Euro 5 results, it did produce the best result for Euro 6 compliant cars. A figure of 0.08g/km means it just meets the European target.

BMW, Euro 6: 0.14 NOx g/km.

13. Honda: 0.45 NOx g/mDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

To produce the figures, Which? analysed 278 diesel cars from leading manufacturers between 2012 and 2016. Five Honda vehicles were tested, producing a result of 0.45 NOx g/km.

12. Vauxhall: 0.46 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Other brands for which only Euro 6 compliant cars are tested include Dacia (0.59g/km), DS Automobiles (0.26g/km), Mazda (0.21g/km) and Jaguar (0.18g/km). Meanwhile, in the Euro 5 table, Vauxhall achieves a figure of 0.46g/km.

Vauxhall, Euro 6: 0.25 NOx g/km.

 

11. Fiat 0.48 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Meanwhile, four Fiats were tested, with a result of 0.48 NOx g/km.

10. Mercedes-Benz: 0.48 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

A total of 17 Mercedes-Benz cars were tested (7 Euro 5 and 17 Euro 6), with a Euro 5 result of 0.48g/km.

Mercedes-Benz, Euro 6: 0.15 NOx g/km.

9. Peugeot: 0.52 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Peugeot finishes 9th in the Euro 5 table, making it the best performing French brand on the list. Its Euro 6 performance is one of the best recorded by Which?.

Peugeot, Euro 6: 0.11 NOx g/km.

8. Kia: 0.53 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Kia finishes eighth, with a NOx figure of 0.53g/km.

Kia, Euro 6: 0.29 NOx g/km.

7. Citroen: 0.56 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Slightly behind Kia we find Citroen, with a NOx figure of 0.56g/km.

Citroen, Euro 6: NOx 0.16g/km.

6. Ford: 0.58 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

There’s not a huge amount of difference between Ford’s Euro 5 and Euro 6 figure, with the more lax Euro 5 test revealing an output of 0.58g/km.

Ford, Euro 6: 0.49 NOx g/km.

5. Hyundai: 0.60 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

Hyundai is committed to delivering 14 or more new environmentally-focused models by 2020, which should go some way to improving this top five finish.

Hyundai, Euro 6: 0.40 NOx g/km.

4. Renault: 0.73 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

NOx emissions from the 16 Renault diesel cars tested are seven times higher than the Euro 6 MINIs tested. In response, Renault said: “Since mid-2015, Groupe Renault has committed to improve the performance of its anti-pollution systems. The vehicles tested by Which? would not have benefitted from this improvement plan”.

Renault, Euro 6: 0.72 NOx g/km.

3. Land Rover: 0.78 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

In third place is Land Rover, which was one of six manufacturers for which the consumer group only has average figures for Euro 5 compliant cars.

2. Nissan: 0.81 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

In response to the results, Nissan said: “We are committed to upholding the law and meeting regulations in every market where we operate. Specifically in Europe, all our vehicles sold in Europe meet the Euro 5/6 emission standards. This report, which looks at the variation between lab and ‘real world’ conditions, shows significant variances for most brands tested”.

1. Jeep: 1.74 NOx g/kmDirty diesels: most polluting cars revealed

That leaves Jeep to secure the unwanted position at the top of the dirty diesels tree. Jeep failed to provide a response to the research.