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2019 Frankfurt Motor Show ‘a huge fail’ says former car boss

Karl Thomas-Neumann

As a former Volkswagen Group senior executive and boss of Opel, Karl-Thomas Neumann is well placed to pass judgement on the Frankfurt Motor Show. It’s fair to say he’s not a fan of his homeland event.

Neumann has launched a scathing attack, labelling the show “a huge fail” and claiming “it’s just a sad shadow of what it used to be”.

There will not be a Frankfurt Motor Show in 2021, he tweeted, in a damning assessment of one of the largest international car shows in the world. Many major brands are absent this year, including Toyota, Nissan, Volvo, Peugeot, Fiat and Mazda.

The absentees, combined with a “mono dimensional” approach, paints a “sad picture” for Germany’s biennial motor show. It’s a view shared by some other industry experts, including designer Drew Meehan, who claims “the show is so spread out and hard to navigate that it was practically begging to be disrupted by a clever brand, and yet no clever brands seem to have showed up.”

The disruption has come from another source, with Greenpeace using the Frankfurt Motor Show to “send a message to the industry directly”. The carbon footprint of the car industry equalled nine percent of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2018, it says.

Greenpeace has singled out the ‘dirty dozen’ and says thousands of protestors will converge on Frankfurt to demonstrate for a climate-friendly future.

From Germany to LA

Karl Thomas-Neumann Opel

Karl Thomas-Neumann was CEO at Continental for five years before becoming CEO and president of Volkswagen China in 2009. He was CEO of Opel but resigned when the company was acquired by PSA Group in 2017. He lives in Los Angeles and works in the field of electrification and new mobility.

Motoring Research’s Richard Aucock was on the ground at Frankfurt 2019 and says it did indeed feel different. “The show was no smaller – it still covers an enormous footprint, with almost a mile separating Mercedes-Benz at one end and BMW at the other.

“But the sheer number of absentees meant many halls were almost entirely handed over to auto industry suppliers rather than car brands. This made it feel unusual, and certainly resulted in less of a show ‘buzz’. 

“Many brands also took out visibly smaller stands. BMW used to have a hall all to itself; this year, it shared space with Jaguar Land Rover, Opel Vauxhall, Hyundai and Alpina. 

“The thrill of the Land Rover Defender reveal still created excitement, but the rest of the show felt flat. A review and refocus are certainly necessary if it is to survive into 2021.”

Is the former Opel CEO correct in his critical assessment of the Frankfurt Motor Show? Let us know using the comments below.

The coolest classic and retro cars in Frankfurt

The classics of Frankfurt

When you’ve had your fill of concepts that will never see the light of day, supercars you can’t afford and middling hatchbacks that are as exciting as a wet weekend in Wakefield, there’s always a ready supply of classic cars at an international motor show. Our man Richard Aucock braved a few extra blisters to take some photos of the cars he found on his travels. He wants you to see them, so keep clicking to make sure he returns home a happy man.

Ferrari 365 GTB/4

The classics of Frankfurt

Ferrari isn’t at the 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show, but that doesn’t mean you won’t find one in the German financial capital. You’ll need the pockets of a merchant banker to be able to afford this, though. The beautiful 365 GTB/4 ‘Daytona’ was launched in 1968, followed by the 365 GTS/4 roadster at the 1969 Frankfurt Motor Show.

Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Coupe

The classics of Frankfurt

You’ll pay upwards of £1 million for an immaculate Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Coupe, a car inspired by the motorsport version of 1952. It was one of the world’s first supercars, boasting a top speed of 260km/h (162mph) and innovative, lightweight spaceframe construction. The iconic ‘gullwing’ doors were introduced when it was discovered that conventional doors were incompatible with the extra height of the sills.

Amphicar

The classics of Frankfurt

Potomac Classics is a Dutch firm specialising in the restoration and sales of the Amphicar. With (ambitious) visions of motoring across the North Sea, we had a look on the Potomac website for details of this stunner. It’s listed as ‘op aanvragg’, or ‘on application’, but there is a 1961 Amphicar available for €62,500 (£55,750). Does that float your boat?

BB Auto Porsche 996

The classics of Frankfurt

Rainer Buchmann founded Frankfurt-based BB Auto in 1974, converting a Porsche 911 into a Targa and painting it in the colours of Polaroid. This Porsche 996 is a more modern, but no less striking, interpretation of the 45-year-old classic.

Left or right?

The classics of Frankfurt

You’re heading home from Frankfurt and you have to choose one of these classics. Do you go Italian or German?

BMW 1600 GT

The classics of Frankfurt

Glas is a former German car manufacturer best known for the production of the Goggomobil. The company was purchased by BMW in 1966, with the Glas GT becoming the 1600 GT. The front end was given a subtle refresh to accommodate the BMW ‘twin kidney’ grille. Memo to BMW: this is how grilles should be done.

A classic, updated

The classics of Frankfurt

We expect the electrification of classic cars to become increasingly popular over the coming years, so it’s no surprise to see major manufacturers embracing the idea. Volkswagen has teamed up with eClassics to convert a Beetle to electric power, with the battery, transmission and motor lifted from the e-Up. Other electric classics will follow.

HK Engineering

The classics of Frankfurt

Nothing to see here, just a few million pounds worth of Mercedes-Benz 300 SL goodness in an exhibition hall in Frankfurt. HK Engineering has been restoring 300 SLs since 1984.

BMW Z8

The classics of Frankfurt

Designed to pay homage to the BMW 507, the production-ready Z8 (right) was unveiled in 1999. Built from the ground up using an entirely new platform, it was BMW’s first $100k+ production car and a star of Bond film The World is Not Enough. The Alpina version (left) used a 4.8-litre V8 instead of the stock 5.0-litre V8 from the M5, plus softer suspension and 20-inch alloy wheels.

Bitter CD

The classics of Frankfurt

The Bitter CD began life as an Opel concept at the 1969 Frankfurt Motor Show. It used the running gear from the Opel Diplomat, which meant a 5.4-litre Chevy V8 with heaps of power and bags of torque. When Opel bailed out on a potential production version, it was left to Erich Bitter to take the baton. The result was a smooth running and classy German GT car.

Lamborghinietta

The classics of Frankfurt

You can’t buy a new Lamborghini Sian, because 63 people with incredibly deep pockets got there first. But ask nicely, and we’re sure you could drive home in one of these Lamborghinietta tractors. The hat is included. Probably.

Porsche Targa Moonracer

The classics of Frankfurt

It sounds like the name of a Bond movie, but we reckon spending a few hours behind the wheel of the Porsche Targa Moonracer would be preferable to sitting in front of the television for the umpteenth time.

Mercedes-Benz 280 SE 3.5 Cabriolet

The classics of Frankfurt

The Mercedes-Benz W111 enjoyed an impressively long life, debuting in 1959 before bowing out in 1971. Available as a saloon, coupe or convertible, the 280 SE 3.5 Cabriolet arrived late in the production run and was powered by a 3.5-litre V8 engine. This one has been restored and is available for €425,000 (£380,000).

Ferrari Testarossa

The classics of Frankfurt

To many, the Testarossa is the archetypal Ferrari of the 1980s. Launched in 1984, the V12 supercar is as famous for its iconic slatted air intakes as for its role in Miami Vice.

Citroen DS Cabriolet Usine

The classics of Frankfurt

The Citroen DS Cabriolet Usine, or ‘Factory’ Cabriolet, was listed in the Citroen catalogue from 1961, with construction undertaken by coachbuilder Henri Chapron. Production continued until 1971, with sales falling to just 40 units. The best year was 1963, when Citroen sold 241 drop-top DS models.

Got wood?

The classics of Frankfurt

Either Richard has injected too many motor show espressos or this is a wooden Mercedes-Benz SL Roadster. Can anybody smell Mr Sheen?

Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren Stirling Moss

The classics of Frankfurt

The Stirling Moss was the final version of the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, built to honour the racing driver’s success at the 1955 Mille Miglia. Just 75 were built, with a UK price tag of £660,000. Given how much you’d pay for one today, that seems like a bargain.

Benetton B194

The classics of Frankfurt

This is the Benetton B194, the car driven by Michael Schumacher during the 1994 F1 season. The German won the World Drivers’ Championship by finishing a single point ahead of Damon Hill.

More pictures:

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Frankfurt goes green: all the new electric cars on show

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

With environmental protests and controversy blighting this year’s Frankfurt Motor Show, and the re-brand the event has undergone, the most important cars on display are arguably those with electric power. We round up the EVs you could drive away from Frankfurt with a clean conscience.

Porsche Taycan

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

One of two show-stopping EV reveals at Frankfurt, this is Porsche’s hotly-anticipated Taycan sports saloon. Its 800-volt architecture should show the Tesla Model S what repeatable performance looks like.

Volkswagen ID.3

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

The other headline-grabbing EV at Frankfurt is the Volkswagen ID.3. Call it reparations for ‘Dieselgate’ if you will, but this car might outsell the Golf one day. The reaction is good thus far.

Volkswagen ID.4

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

As VW has been at pains to emphasise, ‘ID’ isn’t just one car – it’s a model range. The ID.4 SUV is coming soon, as teased by this disguised prototype at Frankfurt.

Mini Electric

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

The Mini seems like the right car to go electric and, finally, the British marque has obliged. The Mini Electric has a 124-mile minimum range and is available to lease from £299 a month.

Vauxhall Corsa e

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

Another electric car for the people is the Vauxhall Corsa e. This small EV is a revolution for the marque, and is twinned with Peugeot’s e208. It’s capable of 200 miles on a full charge

Mercedes-Benz EQV

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

Mercedes calls the EQV the world’s first fully-electric MPV. With a range of 252 miles and top speed of 100mph, your many passengers should have no problem getting to their destination.

Honda e

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

The Honda e will be one of the most interesting new cars of 2020. A futuristic small EV with retro styling, it also – like the Mini – is available from £300 a month.

Smart EQ

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

Smart has updated its EQ models, the ForTwo and ForFour. This comes shortly after an announcement that the marque is going electric-only. A bold move.

Volkswagen e-Up

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

All eyes were on the ID.3, but there’s another small electric car from Volkswagen at Frankfurt. This is the updated e-Up, with an impressive 160 miles of range. It can also replenish its battery to 80 percent charge in 60 minutes using a 40kW charger.

BMW i Hydrogen Next

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

Diverting from battery-electric vehicles at Frankfurt, here’s the BMW i Hydrogen NEXT. Essentially, it’s an X5 powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. No details are available yet, but we do know BMW is working with Toyota on the project.

Byton M-Byte

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

Chinese EV startup Byton revealed the production version of its M-Byte electric SUV at Frankfurt. If you don’t remember who Byton is, just think back to that SUV with a 48-inch screen inside. This is a handsome-looking effort.

Aiways U5

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

Aiways is another Chinese brand with a new EV. To prove its performance, it completed a road trip from China all the way to Frankfurt. On the way, it passed through 12 countries, including Kazakhstan, Russia, Finland and the Netherlands. It was a world record for a journey by a prototype electric vehicle – a full 9,300 miles.

Opel Elektro GT

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

Now we enter the bonus round, of electric cars that were way ahead of their time. Long before the Corsa e came the Opel Elektro GT. This diminutive prototype sports car was the pet project of Georg Von Opel, grandson of the company’s founder. In May 1971, as part of a record attempt, it managed 27 miles on a charge.

Volkswagen Beetle Electric

Electric cars at Frankfurt IAA

This is a very modern classic: an original Beetle fitted with the electric powertrain from a modern e-Up EV. There’s talk of retro-fit kits being made available, and of other Volkswagen Group classics getting the EV treatment.

12 talking points from the Frankfurt Motor Show

The #FrankfurtMotorShow – or Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (IAA), to give it its less hashtag-friendly name – is underway. Here are a dozen things you may have missed from day one of the 2019 show.

Land Rover launches something new

Land Rover launched something new today. You may have heard a few whispers. If not, this ought to serve as a summary:

Defender. Looks like a Skoda Yeti. Iconic. How much? Steelies for the win. Built in Slovakia. #WANT. Bloody Brexit. #NewDefender. Shut up and take my money. Just another #ChelseaTractor. Land Rover #Surrender. Such a beautiful car. Not a proper Land Rover. Anybody want to buy a kidney?

BMW gets a grilling

Speaking of kidneys. BMW reckons the MASSIVE grille on the Concept 4 is ‘confident and classy’. According to Auto Express, the concept is ‘85 percent representative of how the production-ready 4 Series will look’. Which is a neat coincidence, given the fact the concept is 85 PERCENT GRILLE.

Hyundai concept has a comfortable carpet

There are many reasons to love Hyundai 45 EV Concept, not least because it’s partly inspired by the Hyundai Pony of the 1970s. But the winning attribute of this cutting edge vision of the future of mobility is, and we quote, its ‘comfortable carpet’. In an age of electrification, autonomy and car-to-car communication, it’s good to know that manufacturers haven’t forgotten the importance of a good shag pile.

Did somebody mention the Hyundai Pony?

We’ve seen many illustrious classics referenced in press material over the years, but Hyundai’s decision to pay homage to the Pony was an unexpected treat. This also means there’s a little bit of the Morris Marina at the 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show. The legacy of British Leyland lives on.

Opel breaks the golden rule of motor shows

There’s a golden rule of motor shows: never feature a retro or classic car on a stand devoted to new cars. This 1987 Corsa GT has been upstaging the new Corsa all day, hugging the limelight and taking valuable social media buzz away from the latest model.

It’s a good day to be a signwriter

Signwriters and printers across the world will be heading out for a deluxe steak meal tonight following the news that Volkswagen has changed its logo. Dealer signage, point of sale, letterheads, business cards, advertisements, invoices, receipts, literature, etc, etc – if it’s got a Volkswagen logo on it, it’ll need to be changed. Kerching.

Sounds like the name of a Bond villain

This is the new Audi Citycarver, which is essentially a Rover CityRover for a new generation. It’s also the name of the media mogul turned Bond villain, Elliot Carver. Like Audi, Carver had his eyes on world domination. He was hell-bent on making news, while Audi is focused on filling niches.

Don’t have nightmares

We’re not entirely sure if these giant hands are a new safety device or are designed to give children nightmares. Either way, they’re a creepy way to unveil a new car. Still, it makes a change for Audi drivers to see something horrible lurking in their rear-view mirror…

Honda in low price shocker

A £30,000 entry price was predicted for the Honda e electric car. So the fact that the standard model will cost ‘just’ £26,160 or £299 a month is an unexpected treat. Unfortunately, the low cost version won’t be available to order until early 2020, so you’ll have to plump for the £28,660 Honda e Advance if you want to be an early adopter.

You’ll never talk alone

Here’s Jurgen Klopp and Opel CEO Michael Lohscheller looking not at all awkward on the Opel stand. “At the end of the day, it’s a show of two halves, and I’m delighted to be…. WOAH, look at that magnificent 1987 Corsa over there,” said Klopp. Probably.

From scrappage to showstopper

The Hyundai i10 has come a long way since the days of the scrappage scheme and headline-grabbing low prices. The latest i10 looks desirable and stylish, while the specs and warranty should be enough to ruffle a few feathers in boardrooms across Germany.

Plastic fantastic

The Mercedes-Benz EQS is a vision of a future S-Class flagship we can all get behind. There are many features that won’t make production, but we’re rather taken by the choice of material for the roof liner. The textile was created by using a quantity of recycled ocean waste plastic, which strikes us as a jolly good idea. Nice work, Mercedes.

The best new cars at the Frankfurt Motor Show

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

The 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show is underway, giving us the first chance to see some of the new cars you could be driving next year. We’ve elbowed our way to the front of each stand, tripping over travel bags on the way, to bring you the most important reveals and concepts from the 2019 show.

Land Rover Defender

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

It feels like we’ve been talking about the new Defender for an eternity, so it’s a relief to see the iconic 4×4 in the metal. Somehow, Land Rover has managed to fuse the classic design of the original with a look that feels right at home in 2020. The new Defender is available in both 90 and 110 variants, while two commercial models join the range next year. Of course, seeing the Defender under the bright lights of Frankfurt is one thing, but what really matters is how the 4×4 behaves when the going gets tough. We look forward to our first drive.

Porsche Taycan

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Like the Defender, the Porsche Taycan has endured a lengthy gestation period, but the debut of this four-door electric sports car is no less significant. It’s the first all-electric Porsche, with the company heralding the ‘start of a new era’. In flagship Turbo S guise, the Taycan develops 761hp and 774lb ft of instant torque, which is enough to propel it to 124mph in just 9.8 seconds. It’s the first production vehicle to feature 800-volt architecture, which means lightning quick charging times, with the right equipment. A hugely important car for Porsche and the entire EV sector.

Ford Puma

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

If you fancy a Fiesta-based compact SUV but can’t handle the thought of driving an EcoSport, the new Puma might be the answer. Ford sees it as a sporty alternative to the aesthetically challenged EcoSport and hopes to steal sales from the Volkswagen T-Cross. As such, you can expect a range of personalisation options and a host of neat details. We like the subtle nods to the old Puma coupe, including the headlights and the shape of the side windows. We reckon Ford has a potential best-seller on its hands.

Volkswagen ID.3

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Speaking of best-sellers, Volkswagen wants the ID.3 to become as ubiquitous as the evergreen Golf. It’s off to a flying start, with the company receiving 30,000 reservations, plus 10,000 deposits taken during the first 24 hours of its release. With a range of up to 341 miles, 110kW fast charging, high specification from launch and next-generation styling, this could become one of the country’s most popular electric cars. Launch editions will cost £35,000, but you’ll pay £27,000 for the 205-mile capable car. The ID.3 strikes us as an emphatic way to bury the ghosts of ‘Dieselgate’.

Audi A1 Citycarver

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

It’s a compact SUV with an Audi badge, so the A1 Citycarver is likely to be as popular as a pound-a-pint bar during freshers’ week. The name puts us in mind of the City Rover, and Audi has used a similar approach in creating this car with a strange name. Take the A1 supermini, add 4mm of extra ground clearance and a smattering of body armour and – hey presto – you’ve got yourself a Citycarver. Coming to a dropped kerb near you in the autumn.

Lamborghini Sian

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Meet the most powerful road-going Lamborghini ever produced. Thanks to the combination of a 6.5-litre V12 engine and a supercapacitor-powered electric motor, the Sian produces 819hp, which is enough for a top speed of 217mph. Just 63 will be built, honouring the foundation year of Lamborghini, each one individually styled by the owner. Predictably, there are none left, so the price, which is unknown, is almost irrelevant.

Mini Electric

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Mini has received 40,000 registrations of interest for its new electric car, which suggests it might struggle to keep up with demand. Sensibly, it looks just like the regular Mini, albeit with a raised ride height and a few well chosen cosmetic upgrades to showcase your green credentials. The range of up to 144 miles will be a stumbling block for some, but city drivers will love the £24,400 starting price.

Vauxhall Corsa

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

As Britain’s second favourite supermini, the launch of the new Vauxhall Corsa is a big deal for the brand. It shares its platform with the Peugeot 208 and, like its French sibling, an electric version will be available. More conventional petrol and diesel powertrains are also offered, with prices starting from £15,550. The first cars arrive in Vauxhall showrooms in January 2020.

BMW 1 Series

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

You’d be forgiven for thinking you’re looking at the 2 Series Active Tourer, but this really is the new BMW 1 Series. A shift to front-wheel-drive means more cabin space and a larger boot, while a reduction in weight will improve economy and performance. A flagship M135i xDrive sits at the top of the range, but most UK buyers will opt for the 118d. Prices start from £24,430.

Renault Captur

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

The Renault Captur is the most popular car in its class in Europe, so the launch of a new version is a big deal for the French brand. In common with the all-new Clio, the styling is evolutionary rather than revolutionary, with Renault focusing on the interior space, cabin quality, technology and efficiency. A plug-in version will be available next year.

Mercedes-Benz EQV

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

The Mercedes-Benz EQV is billed as the world’s first fully-electric MPV and it’s coming to an airport run near you soon. A 100mph top speed should mean that you’ll never miss your flight (on German autobahns, obviously), while a range of 252 miles should ensure you’re not held up by emergency charging. The 90kWh battery is replenished via an on-board water-cooled charger.

Hyundai i10

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

The new Hyundai i10 is a world away from the budget-led, scrappage-friendly city car of the past. Designed, developed and built in Europe, the new i10 is 20mm lower and 20mm wider than before and available as a four- or five-seater. Two petrol engines are offered at launch: a 1.0-litre three-cylinder unit and a 1.2-litre four-cylinder version. Prices haven’t been announced, but the i10 will come with a five-year unlimited mileage warranty.

Audi RS6 Avant

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

The Audi RS6 Avant is here to give the performance SUV a bloody nose. It’s not as subtle as RS6 Avants of old, but this super-wagon packs 600hp and 800lb ft of torque, which is enough for it to hit 62mph in just 3.5 seconds. Mild hybrid tech is a nod to efficiency, but oval tailpipes the size of the Mersey Tunnel and giant 21-inch wheels will be of greater interest to the RS6 buyer.

Honda e

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Our man Richard Aucock has driven a prototype Honda e and was suitably impressed with what he found. The car on show in Frankfurt is a full production version, complete with subtle changes to the interior trim and a working infotainment system. Would you choose this or the Mini Electric? Honda prices start from £26,160 or £299 a month – might this sway things in Honda’s favour?

Hyundai Veloster N ETCR

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

This is Hyundai Motorsport’s first electric race car. It’s called the Veloster N ETCR and it has been designed and built in Germany to compete in the proposed Electric Touring Car Championship (ETCR). Hyundai hasn’t released any performance figures, but we know that it’s rear-wheel drive and the motor is mid-mounted for optimum weight distribution. The first ETCR race is expected in 2021.

BMW X6

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

This is the new BMW X6, which is longer and wider than its predecessor but 6mm lower. Surprisingly, it looks rather different to the X5 SUV, with a new grille and headlights. It’s also the first production BMW to feature illuminated kidney grilles, but you can bank on these coming to an aftermarket accessories catalogue soon. We’re sure they’d look superb on a 2008 Vauxhall Corsa…

Smart EQ models

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Smart is the first company to switch from combustion engines to electric powertrains across the board. Now, it has given its EQ range a cosmetic overhaul, including optional full LED headlights and different grilles. There’s also a redesigned centre console and new infotainment system. Earlier this year, Daimler and Geely announced plans to develop a new range of Smart electric cars in China.

Vauxhall Astra

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Don’t be fooled by the styling, because this is the new Vauxhall Astra. In reality, it’s more of a mid-life refresh, but the subtle cosmetic makeover masks a comprehensive overhaul beneath the skin. There’s new suspension, improved aerodynamics, more efficient engines and a tweaked interior. Trim lines are now simpler and prices start from £18,885.

Audi AI:Trail Quattro

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

If the Land Rover Defender pays homage to the past, the Audi AI:Trail Quattro is a vision of the future. It’s equipped with four electric motors, systems for assisted and automated driving, plus permanent all-wheel drive. It has a massive 350mm of ground clearance, can ford water more than half a metre deep and is fitted with 22-inch wheels wrapped in 850mm tyres. Still want that Defender?

BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

BMW has added an extra 201mm to the wheelbase of the two-door 8 Series Coupe to create the four-door Gran Coupe. BMW says this space has been used to enable the two passengers in the rear to enjoy a ‘genuine sports car feel’, but there is also a third seat in the back for short journeys. At £69,340, the entry-level Gran Coupe comes in around £2,500 cheaper than the ‘basic’ Coupe.

Mercedes-AMG GLB 35 4Matic

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Mercedes-AMG has wasted little time in building a hot version of the GLB compact SUV. The GLB 35 4Matic features a 2.0-litre turbocharged four-cylinder engine producing 306hp, with power sent to all four wheels via an eight-speed dual-clutch transmission. Wheel sizes range from 19 to 21 inches, with the hot GLB featuring ‘race start’ as standard. A 0-62mph time of 5.2 seconds should keep a few hot hatches on their toes.

Audi RS7 Sportback

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Audi has added a mild hybrid system to its already potent 4.0-litre V8 engine to give the new RS7 Sportback serious performance car credentials. Figures of 600hp and 590lb ft of torque are big league stuff and will ensure the four-door super-saloon hits 62mph in just 3.6 seconds. Opt for the Dynamic Plus Package and the RS7 will top 190mph. A future twin-test against the BMW M8 Gran Coupe should be interesting.

BMW X6 Vantablack

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This BMW X6 is finished in ‘the world’s blackest black’. The one-off vehicle is coated in a Vantablack paint finish that absorbs up to 99.965 percent of light, completely eliminating reflections. The result is surreal, bordering on eerie. Vantablack was developed for aerospace, but this is the first time Surrey NanoSystems, the company behind the innovation, has allowed a car manufacturer to use the paint.

Hyundai 45 EV Concept

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Remember the Hyundai Pony? The 45 EV Concept pays homage to Hyundai’s first independent vehicle and hints at the ‘self-driving vehicles of tomorrow’. The company says it previews the design direction of future EV models and the potential for a ‘consumer lifestyle brand for the future of mobility’. Highlights include an interior inspired by furniture designs, swivel seats and a ‘comfortable carpet’. Because everyone loves a comfortable carpet.

Mercedes-Benz Vision EQS

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

The press material for the Mercedes-Benz Vision EQS contains an awful lot of waffle, but cutting to the chase, this all-electric vehicle previews a future S-Class flagship. Mercedes says it will deliver up to 700km (435 miles) of range and the level of autonomy can be extended up to fully-automated driving.

BMW Concept 4

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“The kidney grille has always been a signature feature of BMW cars,” said Domagoj Dukec, head of BMW Design. “The BMW Concept 4 presents a confident and classy take on this iconic feature,” he continued. Confident? Perhaps. Classy? We’ll get back to you on that. Still, nice side profile.

Volkswagen e-Up

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

While the all-new electric cars might grab the headlines in Frankfurt, news of an updated Volkswagen e-Up will be of interest to many buyers. The range is, er… up, from 99 to 162 miles, with up to 80 percent charge available in just 60 minutes via a 40kW DC charger. The revised e-Up will be built alongside the Skoda Citigo-e iV and Seat Mii Electric.

Cupra Tavascan

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Cupra – the performance offshoot of Seat – reckons the electric coupe SUV market will grow by 15 percent a year. So although the Tavascan is a concept, it provides hints about the next bespoke model to follow the Formentor, which is scheduled to arrive next year. Highlights include 22-inch wheels, a total output of 306hp, four-wheel-drive and a range of up to 280 miles.

Audi A5

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With the A4 updated, it was only a matter of time before the Audi A5 received a mid-life makeover. On show in Sportback, Coupe and Cabriolet variants, the A5 gets a new front end, a touchscreen infotainment system, mild hybrid technology and a revised 12.3-inch Virtual Cockpit. The new A5 will be available to order later this year, with first deliveries expected in the spring.

BMW i Hydrogen Next

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

You’d be forgiven for thinking the future is electric, but BMW is not prepared to put all its alternative fuel eggs in one bag for life. The i Hydrogen Next fuel cell development vehicle is based on the X5 and works on “the assumption that, in future, various alternative types of drive system will exist alongside one another”. Don’t bank on a hydrogen BMW arriving before 2025, mind.

Ford Kuga PHEV

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

Ford is predicting a ‘tipping point of electrified versus conventional petrol and diesel powertrains by the end of 2022, when more than 50 percent of Ford passenger vehicles will be electrified.’ The Kuga Plug-in Hybrid is the company’s ‘most electrified vehicle’ and the first to offer mild-hybrid, ‘self-charging’ full-hybrid and plug-in hybrid powertrains.

Seat Tarraco PHEV

All the cars at Frankfurt IAA

The seven-seat Tarraco is Seat’s third SUV and a rival to the Skoda Kodiaq and Volkswagen Tiguan Allspace. This new plug-in hybrid variant pairs a 1.4-litre petrol engine with an electric motor to deliver 245hp and CO2 emissions ‘below 50g/km’. There’s no word on price, but the PHEV variant will be available to order in 2020. Seat has also unveiled a new FR trim level, complete with FR-specific 19-inch alloy wheels, a new Fura Grey colour, wider wheelarches and a rear spoiler.

Mercedes-Benz Vision EQS Concept previews electric S-Class

Mercedes Vision EQS

Mercedes-Benz has revealed the Vision EQS Concept at the 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show, offering hints of what a future S-Class EV might look like.

It could preview the marque’s next flagship, which may use the same ‘EQ’ nomenclature.

Mercedes says ‘the study provides an outlook on a new dimension in sustainable luxury’.

Vision EQS: packaging the future

Mercedes Vision EQS

The packaging advantages of electric powertrains mean stylists aren’t slaves to the styling tropes of fossil-fuelled cars. There’s no need for a long, tall bonnet, or a cramped cabin filled with transmission tunnel. Bigger wheels can fill the haunches, too, giving a saloon the stance of a supercar.

The EQS seems to combine the very best of current luxury saloons with these new freedoms. Its bonnet is shorter, while the cabin canopy stretches across more of the car’s length.

Mercedes calls this the ‘One Bow’ proportion. and it makes the EQS look very sleek and slippery. The two-tone paint, with a darker upper element, blends well with the glasshouse, too. 

Inside the Vision EQS 

Mercedes Vision EQS

The cabin of the Vision EQS is inspired by luxury yachts. Indeed, the dash appears to have borrowed its design from the deck of a Riva speedboat. The plush cream material is actually made from recycled ocean plastics, and is entirely sustainable.

If the dash is the deck of a speedboat, the upward-swooping floating infotainment screen is the diving board. It’s a very slick look, and brings us to the tech elements of the cabin. The Vision EQS features the latest development of the Advanced MBUX media system.

Mercedes Vision EQS

Gone is the horizontal slab with dual screens and inch-wide bezels of the S-Class. This central screen really is all screen, while driving data is integrated into the dashboard in front of the steering wheel.

Speaking of that wheel, it’s probably the part least likely to make its way onto the next S-Class. 

Mercedes Vision EQS – the numbers

Mercedes Vision EQS

Given it’s a concept, the figures supplied should be taken with a pinch of salt. Still, the Vision EQS is apparently capable of a WLTP-certified 435 miles on a full charge. And it can be recharged to 80 percent capacity in ‘considerably less than 20 minutes’, if charging at 350kW. 

Approximate power is 450hp, while torque is around 550lb ft. Zero to 62mph should take less than 4.5 seconds, while top speed is over 120mph.

Counting down to 2039

Mercedes Vision EQS

Mercedes wants to have a CO2-neutral new car fleet in 20 years. Even now, the ‘Mercedes Me’ charge facility will direct you to charge points that use sustainable energy.

Overall, the Vision EQS is intended to show that eco-conscious cars can still be entirely in keeping with the luxurious reputation of the three-pointed star.

For now, we’ll be glad if the next S-Class borrows some of that Vision EQS style.

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New Land Rover Defender revealed: the headline facts

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

This is the first-ever all-new version of the original Land Rover, first launched back in 1948. We have waited years for it, and the Frankfurt Motor Show marks its international debut. Land Rover describes it as an icon reinvented for the 21st century. Here are the crucial facts you need to know.

Launched as a 110

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

There will be an entire family of new Defenders, but it debuts in a five-door 110 guise. The short-wheelbase 90 will follow a little later, with two commercial Defender vans due in 2020.

Instantly recognisable

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

It looks, well, like a Land Rover Defender. It has short overhangs, an upright stance, a side-hinged tailgate, an externally-mounted spare wheel and even Alpine light windows in the roof.

Satin finish

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

A key option from launch is Satin Protective Film. This is a ‘sustainable, solvent-free and completely recyclable wrap’ that guards against both off-road and on-road scrapes. It’s a factory-fit option for those choosing Indus Silver, Gondwana Stone and Panega Green paint colours.

Packed with accessories

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

No Land Rover has ever had such a wide range of accessories as the new Defender. These include a rooftop tent, inflatable waterproof awnings, a remote control electric winch – plus more commonplace add-ons such as tow bars and roof racks.

Diesel is still here

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

With two commercial versions set to come, the new Defender still has the potential to work for a living. Engine options reflect this, including two four-cylinder diesels, offered in 200hp and 240hp outputs. A four-cylinder turbocharged petrol engine with 300hp, plus a range-topping 3.0-litre inline-six with an impressive 400hp complete the launch range.

Electrified performance

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

The name might be old, but the drivetrain technology underneath the new Defender is totally modern. On the 3.0-litre petrol engine there is even a mild-hybrid system, which includes an electric eSupercharger. This uses power stored in a lithium-ion battery pack to reduce the level of turbo lag below 2,000 rpm. A full plug-in hybrid will join the range next year.

Defender for the world

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Land Rover will sell the new Defender in 128 countries across the world, making it a truly global new car. It is to be built alongside the Discovery at the firm’s Slovakian factory in Nitra.

Defender for a New Age

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Land Rover design boss Gerry McGovern says the new Defender is respectful of its past, but not harnessed by it. “This is a Defender for a New Age. Its unique personality is accentuated by its distinctive silhouette and optimum proportions, which make it both highly desirable and seriously capable.”

Structure exposed

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Inside, the Defender intentionally has a stripped-back feel, with Land Rover exposing structural elements normally hidden behind trim. The emphasis, it says, is on simplicity and practicality.

Lots of seats

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Mounting the gear lever on the dashboard has cleared space for an optional front-centre ‘jump seat’. With three-abreast seating, the Defender offers five, six or 5+2 seating. The 90 will have this jump seat option as well, to ‘accommodate six occupants in a vehicle the length of a compact family hatchback’.

Rubber floor

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Like the original Land Rover, you’ll theoretically be able to hose out your new Defender (if you’re brave), thanks to rubberised flooring. It’s just one of many practicality-focused details of the new Land Rover.

95 percent new

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

The Land Rover Defender is based on an aluminium monocoque architecture called D7x. The ‘x’ stands for extreme. It is 95 percent new compared with the Land Rover Discovery, and is the firm’s stiffest-ever body structure. Remarkably, it is three times stiffer than a traditional body-on-frame design.

Testing, testing

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Apparently, more than 62,000 individual tests have been conducted on the new Defender ahead of sign-off. Land Rover is particularly proud of its Extreme Event Test, which repeats immense, sustained impacts ‘above and beyond the normal standard for SUV and passenger cars’.

Wading ability

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Land Rover has endless figures explaining how good the Defender is off-road. We particularly like the fact it can wade through 900mm of water (that’s over 35 inches). It can also tell you if it’s safe to drive into such daunting depths thanks to a new Wade setting in the Terrain Response 2 system.

The best 4x4xfar

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

The new Defender ‘redefines breadth of capability, raising the threshold for both off-road ruggedness and on-road comfort,’ says Land Rover. ‘It can negotiate crowded city streets as effortlessly as climbing mountains, crossing deserts and withstanding freezing temperatures.’

System updates from the cloud

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

With a vast array of electronic components controlling the new Defender, Land Rover has included the potential for over-the-air software updates. The 14 onboard control modules can be improved without the need to visit a dealership. Land Rover even suggests that a satellite phone connection could be used in remote areas to receive data for updates.

Keep everything charged up

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Proving that the Defender has certainly evolved with the times, a total of five 12-volt charging sockets can be found throughout the interior. Potentially perfect for powering camping and lifestyle accessories. In addition, up to five USB charging ports are also included, dependent on seating capacity. It might make you think twice about hosing out that rubber floor, though,

Even the key is ready for activities

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

Land Rover will offer the second-generation of the Activity Key for the new Defender as an option. This allows the driver to lock and open the Defender using a device similar to a smart watch. Being shock-proof and water resistant lets owners engage in a range of lifestyle activities without the need to carry around a traditional key fob.

Ready to order right now

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

If you are excited by the new 2020 Defender, Land Rover is already accepting orders for the 110 version right now. There is also an online configurator ready to help you plan your dream 4×4. The short-wheelbase 90 will be available to order from the middle of 2020, whilst the release of the commercial variants will be detailed nearer the time.

Land Rover Defender UK prices

New 2020 Land Rover Defender

The Defender 110 costs from £45,240 for the D200 diesel, up to £78,800 for the range-topping P400 petrol. Defender 90 and Commercial prices will be announced nearer their respective launch dates, but expect to pay from £40,000 for the 90 and £35,000 (plus VAT) for the van.

2020 Land Rover Defender: in pictures

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Prices announced for electric Honda e – and it’s not cheap

Honda e prices revealed Frankfurt

Prices for Honda’s e electric city car have been revealed – alongside a production-ready model – at the 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show.

It starts from £26,160, with deliveries expected to commence by early summer 2020.

Buy on finance for £299 a month

The 100kW Honda e costs from £26,160, although that figure includes the £3,500 government plug-in car grant. Without that, it would be £29,660.

The 113kW ‘Advance’ version begins at £28,660, inclusive of the grant.

Alternatively, Honda e finance starts from £299 per month. That’s based on an 8,000-mile annual limit and 23 percent deposit. Paying £50 a month more gets you into the Advance model, which has an electric centre mirror to accompany the camera side mirrors, plus Honda Parking Pilot.

Honda e Advance – order from today

Honda e prices revealed Frankfurt

Ordering for the Advance version opens today at dealerships in the UK. Those who made initial reservations will get priority. Expect to receive an invitation to link up with your local dealer if you are among them.

Follow through with the order and you can expect to get one of the first summer 2020 deliveries.

“We’re pleased to be able to confirm the pricing for the Honda e,” said Phil Webb, head of car at Honda UK.

Honda e prices revealed Frankfurt

“Designed for the urban environment, and originally called the Urban EV, the Honda e has a competitive range of up to 136 miles.

“Honda research has found the average European commute is approximately 30 miles, making it more than sufficient. Coupled with the fast-charge capability of 80 percent in 30 minutes, the Honda e is perfect for the urban environment.

“Honda e is the embodiment of the brand’s commitment to electrification and is the next step towards our electric vision for 100 percent of European sales to be electrified by 2025.”

The Volkswagen ID.3 electric car is here to replace your Golf

Volkswagen ID.3

Volkswagen has finally taken the wraps off its new ID.3 electric car ahead of the 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show.

The claims are bullish: VW says this is its third ‘most important’ launch ever, alongside the original Beetle and Volkswagen Golf. Indeed, it could redefine the people’s car: Golf-sized, but with space inside of a Passat.

Does it have the potential to put VW’s mainstay hatch out of a job? Let’s get the important stuff out of the way.

205-340 miles of range

Volkswagen ID.3

Exactly how the ID.3’s powertrain performs will dictate its suitability for the average buyer. No surprises here, it’s one of the most impressive electric cars yet.

Three battery size options are available at launch. The cheapest entry-level model gets a 205-mile range from its 45 kWh battery. It can be charged up to a 180-mile capability within half an hour, charging at a 100kW output.

The larger battery sizes are 58 kWh and 77 kWh, good for a respective 260 and 341 miles of range. All are WLTP-certified range calculations. Interestingly, it is rear-wheel drive: AWD versions come later. 

The ID.3 is starting as the ID family means to go on in terms of sustainability. Production of the car, through the supply chain and the battery, is totally carbon neutral. 

Inside the ID.3

Volkswagen ID.3

The ID.3 is as futuristic as you’d expect in the cabin. As with much of what’s coming out of the VW Group right now, very little is controlled with buttons.

Everything apart from the electric windows and hazard lights use touch-sensitive haptic controls, mostly located on the 10.0-inch central display and the steering wheel.

In terms of space, as above, it leads the family hatch class. The ‘Open Space’ design is a result of the inherent advantages of an electric powertrain.

Short overhangs, a short bonnet and no encroachment into the cabin from an engine, transmission or driveline. While there isn’t a typical length of bonnet and short overhangs, the ID.3 still looks the part from the outside.

Volkswagen ID.3

“The ID.3 is an all-rounder that is suitable for everyday use,” claims Silke Bagschik, Head of Sales and Marketing for the ID family

“It is compact, as such offering the maneuverability of a small car with the interior space of a mid-range vehicle. It combines exciting design with innovative technology and significant range.”

From under £27,000

Volkswagen ID.3

The ID.3 is going to be available from under £27,000, for the 205-mile capable car. The top-end first edition cars are available from £35,000.

ID.3 Max is the top-of-the-range version of the new family electric car. As well as a panoramic movable glass sunroof and a Beats audio system, it also features a revolutionary augmented reality head-up display.

This equipment comes over and above the Plus specification which has automatic cruise control, a rear-view camera and an advanced keyless go system. Matrix LED lights are also standard.

Volkswagen ID.3

The ID.3 is the next step in EV progression towards taking over from ICE cars. It goes a bit further, charges a bit faster and costs a bit less than what’s come before. What it isn’t, is beholden to ICE tropes. It’s not a car that once had an engine, that’s now electric.

It’s a ground-up design that makes few concessions to petrol and diesel-powered convention. Our first real taste of what VW’s MEB modular electric drive matrix architecture is capable of shows a great deal of promise indeed.

In pictures: VW ID.3

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The car brands you WON’T see at the Frankfurt Motor Show

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

The Frankfurt Motor Show is one of the biggest motor shows on the calendar and was once considered a must-attend event for the world’s motor manufacturers. Not so now. With the number of marques skipping it this year, you could fill the halls of an entire new motor show.

Even the organisers admit change is afoot, saying “the social and political environment are very different from previous events. It is no longer essential to present everything, but instead to provide the right impulses”. These are the absentees.

Ferrari

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019Ferrari is perhaps the most notable omission from Frankfurt this year. Why? Well, in the past it’s been a key participant in the show. The 430 Scuderia, 458 Italia and 458 Speciale are just a few of the major debuts Ferrari brought to Frankfurt. It also has plenty to show off. Apart from the new SF90 hybrid hypercar, the F8 Spider and 812 GTS drop-top models are both hot off the press.

Alpine

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Alpine is staying home for Frankfurt this year. Frankly, we’re not surprised, given that it’s a relatively small company that needs to closely manage its expenses. With no new cars to share with Frankfurt show-goers, and the A110 getting plenty of good reviews, there’s perhaps no need.

Aston Martin

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Meanwhile, Aston Martin seems to have something all-new coming every week. With its first SUV ready to be revealed, and a range of mid-engined exotica waiting in the wings, why wouldn’t Aston go to Frankfurt? The marque has a few tough questions to answer around share prices, truth be told, and Geneva always seems to be its mainstay. 

Alfa Romeo

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Alfa Romeo is staying back from Frankfurt as well, joining Ferrari in what seems to be quite the FCA boycott. In fairness to Alfa, we’re not aware of anything pressing that they have to show off. A Frankfurt stand could be an expensive way of making that quite apparent.

Chrysler

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019


The ‘C’ in FCA joins the wider group in abstaining from Frankfurt and we don’t blame it. Chrysler is without much in the way of Europe-centric offerings at the moment. 

Fiat

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Slightly more confusing is the lack of Fiat, and therefore Abarth. Unlike the Chrysler side of the FCA operation, Fiat is the European element. However, with the new 500 nowhere in sight and a replacement for the Punto a great unknown, what purpose would a show stand serve? 

Nissan

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Nissan too is declining Frankfurt – a curious omission from such a major brand. The show this year has been marred by environmental protests, so given Nissan’s recent trouble with emissions, staying away may prove a good call.

Infiniti

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Taking the prize for the least surprising Frankfurt absentee is Infiniti. Given that it’s finally given up the ghost and announced its exit from Europe, attendance at Frankfurt would feel odd to say the least.

Mazda

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Having just launched its new 3 family hatch and saloon, as well as the CX-30 SUV, both with a clever new Skyactiv-X engine, should Mazda be showing off at Frankfurt? Given the focus on future tech and curbing emissions, you’d think it would have a strong hand to play. That’s not even taking into account the 30th anniversary of the MX-5. Ho hum.

Rolls-Royce

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Following in the footsteps of fellow luxury brands Aston Martin and Ferrari, here’s Rolls-Royce. The maker of the ‘Best Car in the World’ has nothing new to show at Frankfurt, and what it does offer is selling well. Not that Rolls is known for restraint and considered spending, but a Frankfurt stand might feel a little gratuitous.

Bentley

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Also, it doesn’t have Bentley to contend with. The flying B is also skipping Frankfurt. It does have a fair bit more to show off, though. The fantastic EXP 100 concept, the continuation Blower models and the new Flying Spur, to name but three. Not enough, it seems, to warrant floor space in Frankfurt. For shame!

Toyota

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Back down to Earth with Toyota. This is a curious one, but we’ve been given a reason. Its skipping of Frankfurt is part of “a review of marketing activity and spending”. 

Dacia

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Dacia, in the ultimate considered approach to spending, is also omitting Frankfurt from its calendar. The budget brand in the Renault-Nissan group joins Mitsubishi in skipping the German show. Renault will be in attendance, though, with a new Clio, and hopefully a Megane with a certain German lap record to show off.

Peugeot

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

The other French marques will not be in Frankfurt, though. PSA is mostly staying away, save for Vauxhall’s sister brand, Opel. With Peugeot’s recent upmarket leanings and its electric 208 on the horizon, we thought it would be out in force at Frankfurt. Alas, no.

DS

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Speaking of upmarket leanings, PSA’s pretender to German premium appeal is also missing out. And so is sister-brand Citroen.

Cadillac

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

More surprising an omission than you might think are a couple of key General Motors marques. Firstly, Cadillac: as it takes aim at the German marques, you’d think it would show up on their home turf for a throwdown. 

Chevrolet

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Is Chevy skipping Frankfurt a surprise? Actually, it is. If you’re preparing to launch one of the most hotly-anticipated sports cars of the last decade – the mid-engined Corvette – shouldn’t you be showing it off? 

Subaru

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Another marque with not an awful lot to present is Subaru. The theme at this year’s show seems to be bleeding edge technology – not words we’d use to describe anything launched over six months ago.

Volvo

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

You’d think Volvo’s focus on safety and emissions would work well at Frankfurt. Yet even with its fresh-faced lineup looking stronger than ever, the Swedes will be missing from the show.

Suzuki

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

Suzuki is in the business of cutting back at the moment. The new Swift and Jimny are appealing, but it has removed the Baleno and Celerio from UK sale. Frankfurt would be a big spend with not an awful lot to show off.

Who is at Frankfurt?

Car brands not at Frankfurt 2019

With all this talk of who isn’t at Frankfurt, we should highlight the important stuff that WILL be there. The Volkswagen Group will present a hotly anticipated two-prong EV effort, with the VW ID.3 and the Porsche Taycan. And there’s the new Land Rover Defender, of course.

Frankfurt will be a big show, but it’s only attracting those with something to show. Check out our guide to the must-see new cars at this year’s Frankfurt Motor Show.