What does that car dashboard warning light mean?

Our guide to dashboard warning lights

As a driver, you get a front-row seat to what goes wrong with your car via the warning lights on the dashboard.

A diagnostic tool or a robust familiarity with your car’s owners’ book might be required to know exactly what they mean. Some lights are more or less universal. Here, we have a general guide as to what warning lights could mean in your car.

First of all, colours. lights can generally be split into three categories. Red usually means ‘bad’ problems, orange for advice and blue and green for everything else. Generally speaking, whether it’s a solitary light, or your dash is lit up like a cul-de-sac at Christmas, you should address the issue swiftly.

We’ll deal with the red issues first and quickly, as you should when you see them…


Car dashboard warning lights: everything you need to know

A red warning light in the shape of a square car battery showing positive and negative terminals indicates an issue with charging the battery. This could be a problem with the battery itself, or the alternator or alternator belt.



A brake warning light could be triggered by something as simple as the handbrake being on. If it doesn’t turn off when you disengage the handbrake, check the brake fluid level or get a professional to look into it.

Low oil pressure

Low oil pressure

A light which looks like an oil can signifies low oil pressure. You should not drive with this light illuminated as it could cause damage to the engine. Turn the engine off and check the oil level – it may need topping up. Seek assistance if the light remains lit.

Seat belt

Seat belt

A light showing a person sitting with a seat belt across their chest is warning you that someone in the car is not wearing their seat belt. If you don’t wear a seat belt and you haven’t got a valid reason why, you could be hit with a £100 on-the-spot fine. The driver is also responsible for any children aged 14 or under not wearing their seat belt.

Coolant temperature

Coolant temperature

Although you should keep an eye on your car’s temperature gauge to identify any issues with its cooling system, some cars have a temperature warning light for when it gets hot. This looks like a thermometer with wavy lines. Like the oil pressure warning light, you should stop and turn off the car’s engine to prevent further damage.

Washer fluid

Washer fluid

We’re now moving onto orange or yellow lights, which signify advice rather than urgent issues. A shortage of washer fluid can trigger a warning light on some cars. Simply top up the washer fluid reservoir to turn the light off.

Traction control

Traction control

Occasionally you might see this light appear for a brief moment while driving. Most likely to appear in slippery or wet conditions, the traction or stability control light means the car is having to brake a wheel or cut power to prevent wheelspin. Driving more cautiously with the conditions in mind will prevent it appearing again.



The ABS light is likely to come on during hard braking. This is when the anti-lock braking system is triggered. Essentially, during heavy braking the system will modulate the brakes to prevent the wheels locking up and causing a skid. Like traction control, if this kicks in while driving, adapt your driving to prevent it.

Engine management

Engine management

The engine management or ‘check engine’ light could mean a wide range of things from an open fuel filler cap to a serious engine problem. You’ll need to plug a diagnostics reader into your car to establish exactly what the issue is.

Lane assist

Lane assist

If your car is fitted with lane assist to nudge you back into lane if your car starts to drift on the motorway, a light might display to show it’s enabled.

Cruise control

Cruise control

If your car is fitted with cruise control, a light showing a car’s speedo with an arrow pointing at it might display when the system is turned on.

Glow plugs

Glow plugs

If you drive a diesel car, a glow plug light might display when you’re first turning it on. This means the glow plugs are warming up and the ignition shouldn’t be turned on until the light goes out. If the light flashes, it suggests a problem with the glow plugs.

Bulb failure

Bulb failure

Some cars will display a warning light when they detect a failed bulb in one of the car’s lights. Replace the bulb to extinguish the light.



A light showing a person with a circle in front of them suggests there’s a fault with one of the car’s airbags. Investigate it as soon as convenient.



If you drive a modern diesel car, it might display a DPF light when the diesel particulate filter becomes blocked. This is most likely to happen if you do lots of short journeys at low speeds. Allow it to regenerate by driving on a long motorway journey.



When you turn your indicators or hazard lights on, left or right arrows will display on the dash to show which way you’re indicating.

Main beam

Main beam

When you’ve got main beam engaged for driving in the dark, a blue light like the one in the picture above will display on your dash. You should make sure you dip your headlights when there are other cars about to prevent oncoming drivers being blinded.

Fog lights

Fog lights

A curved ‘D’ shape next to wavy lines will indicate that your front or rear fog lights are turned on. These should only be used when visibility drops below 100 metres.



An exclamation mark below a curved arrow relates to the car’s stop/start system. Depending on the car it could mean that the system is turned on, allowing the engine to turn off when the car’s stopped to save fuel, or turned off. It could also mean there’s an issue with it – consult your owner’s manual.

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How to slice your monthly fuel costs

How to slice your monthly fuel cost

Where do you fill up?

The cost of fuel varies greatly depending on where you buy and who you’re buying from. Paying 123p per litre of petrol instead of 129p equates to 30p per gallon. 

If your car manages 40mpg and you do 800 miles a month, that’s £6 back in your pocket just by being picky about where you buy fuel.

We have an extensive guide and regularly updated guide to finding fuel at the right price.

How do you drive?

How to slice your monthly fuel cost

How you drive is the main factor in much fuel you use. Here’s how changing your behaviour can save you money.

  • Speed

The easiest way to stop burning so much fuel is to slow down. A few miles per hour here and there can make a difference. Speed limits save your wallet as well as your licence.

Figures from the Department for Transport suggest that driving at a steady 50mph instead of 70mph can improve fuel economy by as much as 25 percent. You’ll use around 10 percent more fuel at 80mph than you will at 70mph, too. 

  • Engine revs

Don’t over-rev, either. Generally speaking, you’ll be able to feel in the rev range where your engine is most comfortable. 

The Department for Transport recommends changing up a gear before the rev counter reaches 2,000rpm in a diesel car and 2,500rpm in a petrol. Read the road ahead to ensure you’re not in too high a gear for hills and roundabouts.

Stay safe driving in Europe

  • Smoothness and preparation

By accelerating and decelerating in a smooth and relaxed manner, you can expect to save around 20 percent in fuel. Figures suggest that non-aggressive driving and anticipating the road ahead could see this rise to as much as 30 percent.

Anticipate where stops are coming and let off the throttle to coast down. Last-minute hard braking is a serious waste of energy, unless you’re driving a hybrid. Even then, there are precious yards of distance you were still using fuel where you could have been coasting. 

Keep acceleration smooth, too. How close your right foot is to the floor directly relates to how much fuel is being pumped into the engine.

How to slice your monthly petrol and diesel costs

  •  Fuel-burning features

Turning off air conditioning will improve your fuel economy, but opening windows on the motorway could decrease it. As a guide, keep windows shut at speeds in excess of 60mph. In general, air conditioning will have the greatest impact on your economy at lower speeds, especially during city driving.

Remember, air conditioning can also help de-mist a car, so using it is preferable to leaving the car idling while you wait for windows to clear.

  • Plan your journey

When you drive and which route you take can have as much of an effect on fuel consumption as how you drive. Avoid busy periods, plan shorter or less congested routes. Not only is driving on a clear road a joy, it’s also nice and efficient.

Apps like Waze and Google Maps can help with establishing the best route. And while we’re talking about planning, let’s circle back to ‘Where do you fill up?’ quickly. Whatever you do, don’t fill up at a motorway services. All this is for nothing if you wind up paying 10p a litre over the odds. Start with a cheap full tank and know where your fuel stops will be.

Do you look after your car?

How to slice your monthly fuel cost

Look after your car and it’ll look after your wallet, both in terms of maintenance and fuel costs.

  • Servicing

An engine is only efficient if looked-after. Sticking to service intervals and making sure your fluids are at the correct levels is essential for getting the best performance and economy. A well-maintained car will also last longer.

Consult your handbook to find out when your car is next due a service.

  • Tyres

The tyres are the only bit of the car that touches the road, so they’re important to keep an eye on. Too little tread is dangerous, while too little air is dangerous and expensive.

Research by Continental suggests that tyres account for 20 percent of a car’s total fuel consumption, so it pays to take care of your rubber. Reduce rolling resistance by 10 percent and you can expect a 1.6 percent drop in fuel consumption. 

Make sure you’re car is tracking straight, too, as incorrect alignment can cause unnecessary drag and wear on the tyres.11

How to slice your monthly fuel cost

  • Unnecessary weight

The more your car has to carry, the harder it has to work, which in turn leads to reduced fuel efficiency. While forcing the kids to get a gym membership might be a bit excessive, it’s worth ridding your boot of excess luggage.

The RAC says that, on average, every 50kg you carry will increase your fuel consumption by two percent. That’s based on the percentage of extra weight relative to the vehicle’s weight, so the smaller the car, the greater the effect.

  • Remove the roof rack

Anything that reduces your car’s aerodynamic performance will have a negative impact on fuel consumption. More figures from the RAC suggest that even an empty roof rack can increase fuel consumption by 10 percent.

Add the additional weight of a fully-loaded roof rack and the net result could seriously hamper your chances of saving money. If it’s not being used – remove it. And that includes the roof bars, too.

Air con

Why you may find water under your car in hot weather

Parked car in summerWith the summer weather now turning into a heatwave, some motorists may be alarmed to find pools of water beneath their cars – sometimes with drips still falling from the engine bay.

But don’t worry. Chances are, it doesn’t mean the radiator has sprung a leak and the car is about to overheat. You can take your head out of your hands.

More advice on Motoring Research

Rather, it’s most likely to be water dripping from the air conditioning system – and there’s absolutely nothing to worry about.

It is caused by the air conditioning compressor working hard in hot weather: due to thermodynamics, the unit itself can freeze over as it takes moisture out of the car.

Air con

When the car is parked and the air con unit deactivated, the ice on its surface melts: this is what causes the puddle under the car (and the hotter the weather, the bigger and more alarming-looking the puddle may be…).

RAC spokesman Pete Williams revealed the motoring organisation had received lots of calls from drivers worried by pools of water under their cars.

“The advice is to check whether this is simply odourless water of if it has coolant in and a clear smell and colour.

If it’s is the former, then there should be no need to worry.”

Hopefully, that’s panic over. Meaning it’s only the sunshine that will leave you hot under the collar during this heatwave. 

How to reduce your car’s emissions on Clean Air Day

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

Road transport is responsible for 30 percent of particulate emissions in Europe. In London alone, emissions related directly to cars, buses and lorries contribute to 9,000 premature deaths a year.

Today, however, is National Clean Air Day, so here’s a handy guide on how to drive more efficiently. Breakdown cover provider Green Flag has come up with a few clean-driving tips, and we’ve added some of our own. They could save you money, as well as save the planet.

1. Plan your trip

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

Reducing polluting short trips is a big help when it comes to emissions. A warm engine is a cleaner engine, and it can’t get warm if it doesn’t get the chance. Get everything done on one drive, rather than scattering lots of short trips separately.

Do research ready for a trip – have your target parking space ready, to avoid circling around looking for a free spot. Plan when you’re going to leave, too. Avoid the polluting traffic, rather than becoming part of it.

2. Check your tyre pressures

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

According to Michelin, a tyre under-inflated by 20 percent can give 20 percent less fuel mileage. Over the course of 25,000 miles, that’s the equivalent of losing 5,000 miles in fuel. Makes you think, doesn’t it?

In short, low tyre pressures increase fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, so you should check your rubber at least once a month. Typically, a tyre will lose around 1 psi of pressure a month, but air might also be lost via a slow puncture, a leaking valve or old wheels.

3. Keep your car well-maintained

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

A happy car is a healthy car, and other such cliches. But the fact remains: a well-maintained vehicle will perform better, use less fuel and be better for the environment. Oil is the lifeblood of your car, lubricating the engine, keeping it cool and preventing wear. It should be changed at regular intervals to maintain maximum efficiency.

Similarly, changing the oil, air and fuel filters is essential for a smooth-running vehicle, so check your handbook for the recommended service intervals. Deterioration is gradual, so don’t leave it too long before visiting a garage.

4. Smooth driving

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

How and what we drive has a significant bearing on efficiency. While changing your driving style won’t convince the tax man that you deserve a rebate, it will extend the time between fuel stops and will save you money.

The key is smoothness: accelerate steadily, don’t come straight off the power and immediately apply the brakes when slowing down. Look ahead and anticipate: coast, engine brake and so on. It’s a good feeling – saving you money on fuel and braking components.

5. Turn off the air-conditioning

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

We know of a few people who have spent a hot lunchtime in their air-conditioned car, as it was cooler than in the office. But the fact remains, the air-con system makes the engine work harder, increasing fuel usage and CO2 emissions. That’s not to say that opening the windows is the answer, as this can create drag, negating any benefits associated with keeping the air-con switched off.

As a rule of thumb, opening the windows is probably the best option for urban driving, switching to air-con for A-roads and motorways.

6. Reduce idling time

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

Many modern vehicles are fitted with a stop-start system, which automatically shuts down the engine when idling at traffic lights or queuing in traffic. Make sure it is switched on to maintain efficiency.

If your car isn’t fitted with a stop-start system, you should turn it off if you’re likely to be waiting for longer than 10 seconds. Equally, don’t leave your car idling on the driveway before you set off.

7. Maintain your car’s aerodynamics

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

Car manufacturers invest millions and spend weeks in the wind tunnel perfecting your vehicle’s aerodynamics, only for you to ruin things with a roof rack. Sure, you might need it to carry that extra luggage on your summer hols, but be sure to remove it when it’s not in use.

An empty roof rack can increase fuel consumption by as much as 10 percent, and there’s also the issue of added weight to think about. The advice is simple: if you’re not using it, remove it.

8. Remove any unnecessary weight

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

Open the boot and you might be surprised at how much clutter you’ve been lugging around. Foldaway furniture from the summer of 2016, Christmas crackers from 2011, the gym equipment you never actually used…

Even the most innocuous of old tat can add up to a significant heft – and you’re paying to lug it around. Reduce weight, use less fuel – it’s as simple as that.

9. Buy the right car

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

When all of the above isn’t enough, it’s time for a change. This might seem obvious, but you’d be surprised at how much we confuse our needs with our desires. The shift to EVs is underway, with many people beginning to realise how comfortably electric cars can fit into our everyday lives, especially if your commutes and regular journeys are short.

Alternatively, a hybrid or plug-in hybrid could deliver substantially reduced CO2 emissions, as could swapping your old banger for something a little more modern. Every drop in emissions works towards the greater good.

10. Carbon offsetting

Reducing emissions on Clean Air Day

Got all of that? Good. This one will almost certainly not save or earn you any money, but it should ease your conscience.

What do cars belch out? Carbon dioxide (CO2). And what do trees, bushes, flowers and grass consume? CO2.

The noble act of carbon offsetting is easily achievable. It can be as simple as keeping a potted plant or maintaining a lawn, or as grand as a tree planting expedition. Either way, you’re nurturing greenery – the stuff that almost literally eats the stuff you’ve been pumping into the atmosphere since you first fired up a car. It sounds far-fetched, but a lot of people making a little effort can go a long way.

Diesel particulate filter warning light

Diesel particulate filters: why are they a problem?

Replacing a diesel particulate filter (DPF) could cost more than the value of your car. Here, we look at the potential problems and how to avoid them

MOT test

10 things to check before your car’s MOT test

MOT test

Following a raft of changes introduced in May 2018, the MOT test has never been more challenging. Under strict new rules, faults are graded depending on how dangerous they are, and greater emphasis has been placed on diesel car emissions.

It’s as a result of this that MOT emissions test failures have nearly doubled, with almost 745,000 cars failing on emissions, compared to 350,000 in the same period in 2017. Diesel cars have seen the biggest percentage increase here.

According to the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA), nearly 50 per cent of all faults found on MOTs could be avoided by carrying out regular maintenance or by checking some basic items before the test.

Further MOT analysis reveals that around 40 per cent of cars fail their MOT at the first attempt, costing motorists time and money. We can’t guarantee that these simple steps will result in a pass, but they should minimise the chances of a failed MOT.


This one is blindingly obvious, but so many motorists forget to check the lights before the MOT test. Indeed, a surprising 30 per cent of faults found during the MOT test relate to lighting and signalling.

Make sure you check all of the lights – headlights, sidelights, rear lights, hazard lights and indicators – and be sure to include the brake lights in your inspection. Either ask a friend to press the brake pedal, or reverse up to a reflective surface. Make sure the high-level brake light is functioning correctly.

Number plate

Number plates (also known as licence plates) must show the car’s registration number correctly. You could be fined up to £1,000 and your car will fail its MOT if you drive with incorrectly spaced letters or numbers.

The number plates will also be inspected for condition, secure attachment and colour. Give yourself plenty of time to order a new set of plates – you can only order from a registered number plate supplier. You will need to prove your identity and show that you’re entitled to the registration number.

Wheels and tyres

Pre-MOT checks

Firstly, check that the wheels and tyres are undamaged – you can do this yourself or at a local tyre fitter. The minimum tyre tread depth is 1.6mm, and anything less than this will be marked as a ‘fail’.

However, we’d recommend changing the tyres when the tread reaches 3mm. While spare wheels and tyres are not inspected, it’s worth noting that cars first used on or after 1 January 2012 will be checked to make sure the tyre pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is working.

Note: 10 per cent of all MOT faults are related to tyres.

Seats and seatbelts

Check that the driver’s seat can be adjusted and that all seats are securely fitted. It’s essential that the seatbacks can be fixed in the upright position.

While you’re there, check the entire length of the seatbelt for damage and pull on them sharply to ensure that they react appropriately.


Take a look at the windscreen to ensure that there are no cracks or damage to the glass. Any damage larger than 40mm will result in a ‘fail’, as will any chips or damage wider than 10mm in the area swept by the wipers.


Checking a windscreen wiper blade

On the subject of wipers, make sure they are able to clear the windscreen of rain. If it’s not raining, use a watering can or a hose. The wiper blades should be free of damage or tears – it’s likely to be cheaper to buy a set of new blades in advance rather than relying on a distress purchase at the MOT test centre.

Note: 8.5 per cent of all MOT faults are related to ‘Driver’s view of the road’. So, if you have stickers, toys or air-fresheners obstructing your view, remove them before the test.


Your car could fail its MOT for having no screenwash, so make sure the washer bottle is topped up in advance. You’ll also be turned away from the MOT test centre if the vehicle has insufficient engine oil or fuel. The MOT tester will also check the power steering oil.


Again, it’s a simple one to check, but when was the last time you used your horn? Make sure it works and is the suitable horn for the vehicle.

Warning lights

If your car’s dashboard lights up like a Christmas tree you could be in for a rough ride at the MOT testing station. A failed main beam warning light will result in a fail, as will the ABS light, engine warning light, brake fluid light and airbag warning light. Get all dashboard lights checked out in advance.

Suspension and brakes

Pressing the brake pedal

One in 10 of all MOT fails are related to brake issues, and you can minimise the risk by testing the brakes every day. If you hear any strange noises or the car pulls to one side, consult a garage.

Similarly, the MOT tester will check the suspension, so press down on each front wing to check for worn shock absorbers. If the car ‘bounces’ up and down rather than returning to the correct position, they may be worn. Also, listen out for knocking noises.

These simple checks should only take a few minutes, but it’ll be more hassle arranging for any repair work to be carried out or booking a re-test. For a full list of the car parts checked during the MOT test, visit the government website.

Remember, an MOT test isn’t the same as having your car serviced and doesn’t provide an accurate description of the vehicle’s general mechanical condition. Regular service and maintenance will almost certainly improve your chances of an MOT pass and fewer advisories.

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JD Power servicing satisfaction

JD Power: the UK’s most satisfying car brands

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Every year, JD Power publishes its Customer Service Index Study, which asks drivers about their experiences with dealers during the first three years of car ownership. Each brand is given a rating out of 1,000 for overall satisfaction. Join us as we count down all 24 carmakers in the 2018 survey – from worst to best – and reveal their scores.

24. Citroen: 764

JD Power servicing satisfaction

The study measures customer satisfaction with service experience at a franchised dealer facility for maintenance and repair work. JD Power uses five measures, listed in order of importance: service quality, service initiation, service advisor, vehicle pick-up and service facility. You won’t be surprised to find a French manufacturer propping up the table.

=22. Renault: 766

JD Power servicing satisfaction

And, predictably, there’s another French brand in the number 23 slot. JD Power spoke to 7,899 motorists who registered their new vehicle between February 2015 and April 2017. Sorry, Renault, but this is one to file under ‘could do better’.

=22. Nissan: 766

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Not that Nissan can rest on its (Datsun) laurels. The Qashqai might be Britain’s best-loved crossover, but Nissan owners have failed to connect with the dealers. Swipe left if you agree with the JD Power study.

21. Ford: 767

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Josh Halliburton, vice president and head of European operations at JD Power, said: “These results illustrate the importance of developing passionate advocates, not only for the product but also for the dealership itself, when trying to attract younger people as new customers,” This is a reference to the fact that young customers are less likely than older customers to be loyal to a dealer.

20. Skoda: 771

JD Power servicing satisfaction

This might come as a surprise, not least because Skoda prides itself on delivering good customer satisfaction. It will need to up its game if it wants to attract – and retain – new customers to its expanding range of crossovers and SUVs.

19. Peugeot: 774

JD Power servicing satisfaction

If there’s one crumb of comfort for Peugeot, it’s the fact that it’s the highest ranked French manufacturer. According to JD Power, vehicle pick-up satisfaction is 15 points higher among customers who handled payments with their customer service advisor than among those who dealt with a cashier.

18. Seat: 777

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Next up is Seat, which scores six points more than its Volkswagen Group sibling, Skoda. Czech, mate.

17. Volkswagen: 779

JD Power servicing satisfaction

The industry average for volume manufacturers is 779, which must leave Volkswagen feeling decidedly average. Vanilla. Mediocre. Straight down the middle. Par for the course.

=15. Mazda: 780

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Back in 2016, we were surprised to find Mazda at the foot of the table. While finishing 15th suggests there’s still work to be done, the Japanese company will be delighted to have escaped the relegation dogfight. It’s not time to call in Sam Allardyce just yet.

=15. Hyundai: 780

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Tied with Mazda is Hyundai, which offers a range of great value cars and a comprehensive five-year, unlimited mileage warranty. The new i30 N hot hatch is proof that it’s not afraid to let its hair down once in a while.

14. Toyota: 784

JD Power servicing satisfaction

The same can be said of Toyota, which has gone bonkers with the crazy Yaris GRMN. A 14th place finish is surprising, as the Japanese giant tends to finish closer to the top in satisfaction surveys.

13. Fiat: 785

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Fiat is so pleased with its 13th place finish, it has issued a press release. Sebastiano Fedrigo, MOPAR service, parts and customer care director at FCA said: “We have made a considerable investment in training, genuine parts distribution and new aftersales programmes which has helped Fiat to improve customer satisfaction. We are supporting our network with more efficient parts delivery service to increase availability of Mopar genuine parts, which will not only reduce off-the-road time but also increase the longevity and value of our customer’s cars.”

=11. Vauxhall: 786

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Vauxhall hasn’t issued a press release to celebrate finishing joint 11th, but the people of Luton will be glowing with pride once they discover the name of the other brand to score 786 points.

=11. BMW: 786

JD Power servicing satisfaction

That’s right, Vauxhall dealers are on a par with BMW dealers when it comes to customer satisfaction. You’re unlikely to see a press release from Bavaria, not least because this puts BMW at the bottom of the premium brand table.

10. Suzuki: 791

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Suzuki finishes 10th overall and fifth on the list of volume manufacturers. We rather like Suzuki’s range of value-driven cars, and it would appear that you are a fan of its dealers.

=7. Dacia: 792

JD Power servicing satisfaction

In a victory for rational common sense and fit-for-purpose motoring, Dacia finishes seventh overall and fourth on the list of volume brands. The budget brand has just released the prices of the all-new Duster, which start at £9,995.

=7. Jaguar: 792

JD Power servicing satisfaction

There’s a three-way tie for seventh, with Jaguar joining Dacia on 792 points. The big news this summer is the arrival of the I-Pace electric car. Our verdict: “Jaguar has delivered the car all the others now have to beat. And it’s set an impressively high bar to battle over. Such is the all-round ability of the Jaguar I-Pace; prepare to start seeing a lot of them out and about, and rightly so.”

=7. Audi: 792

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Audi is the third manufacturer to finish with 792 points, placing it below the premium brand average of 798. A decent score, but there are three volume manufacturers further up the table.

6. Mercedes-Benz: 805

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Mercedes-Benz finishes third on the list of premium brands and sixth overall. Stay tuned for our first drive review of the new A-Class (pictured).

=4. Kia: 808

JD Power servicing satisfaction

There are two manufacturers tied on 808 points, with Kia maintaining its reputation as the automotive equivalent of a teacher’s pet. With such excellent dealers and a seven-year warranty, it’s not hard to see why Kia owners are so satisfied.

=4. Volvo: 808

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Volvo is the brand that can do no wrong, scooping awards left, right and centre. A score of 808 points will put the Swedish brand in a state of happiness.

3. Honda: 815

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Hoorah for Honda, which ranks second on the list of volume manufacturers and third overall. If one vehicle could sum up ‘car reliability’, it would be the Honda Jazz.

2. Mini: 822

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Mini might take issue with JD Power’s decision to include it on the list of volume manufacturers, but it will be delighted with the overall result. Can you guess which manufacturer pipped it to the post?

1. Land Rover: 824

JD Power servicing satisfaction

Blimey, it’s Land Rover, which ranks highest among premium brands for a second consecutive year. Take a bow, Land Rover dealers, and feel free to take the rest of the day off. Just check with your manager, first.

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What the new MOT test changes mean for you and your car

What the new MOT test changes mean for you and your car

What the new MOT test changes mean for you and your car

The current MOT system is to be scrapped from May 2018 – with a new, more challenging test taking its place.

From 20 May, all cars being put forward for their annual test of roadworthiness will be examined under strict new rules. These will see faults graded depending on how dangerous they are, and greater emphasis placed on diesel car emissions.  

Currently, all cars on UK roads between three- and 40-years-old must be MOTed annually by an approved garage. Any major faults will result in a fail: these include things like tyres below the minimum tread depth, or CO2 emissions above a certain level.

Other faults, classed as ‘advisories’ include things like worn tyres (but not below the 1.6mm minimum tread depth) or rust that doesn’t affect the structural integrity of the vehicle. The idea is that car owners should consider fixing these issues – especially as they may get worse over time – but they don’t prevent the vehicle being roadworthy at the time of the test.

The new rules essentially rename ‘advisories’ as ‘minor faults’. They work in the same manner – issues that they owner needs to be aware of, but things the tester has no qualms over allowing the car’s owner to drive away with.

However, other faults will now be split between ‘dangerous’ and ‘major’ faults. The former will include things that make the car dangerous to drive away from the garage – even if it’s to be repaired or if the existing MOT is still valid. Major faults, meanwhile, will trigger an MOT fail but won’t be flagged up as dangerous.

What the new MOT test changes mean for you and your car

The changes, which are being brought in to meet a new EU directive, have attracted criticism from motoring organisation the RAC.

“While on the surface this change seems like a sensible move, we fear many motorists could end up being confused by the new categories which give an indication as to the seriousness of vehicle defects identified in an MOT test,” said RAC spokesman Simon Williams.

“Rather than MOT failures simply being black and white, the new system creates the potential for confusion as testers will have to make a judgement as to whether faults are ‘Dangerous’, ‘Major’ or ‘Minor’. This will surely be open to interpretation which may lead to greater inconsistency from one test centre to another.

“Motorists may also struggle to understand the difference between ‘Dangerous’ and ‘Major’ failures. The current system ensures that any vehicle with a fault that doesn’t meet the MOT requirements is repaired appropriately before being allowed back on the road.”

There will also be new rules for diesel cars which could make it more difficult to pass the MOT test. Vehicles emitting ‘visible smoke of any colour’ will be issued with a major fault and therefore an instant fail, while cars with diesel particulate filters that have been removed or tampered with will also fail. That’s unless the owner can prove that amendments have been made to clean the filter.

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Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

Car warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017Buy a new car and it’s likely to come with a three-year warranty, but many manufacturers will offer extended warranties for an additional premium. Alternatively, some new cars will be covered for five or even seven years, providing peace of mind until as late as 2025. But what do you do when the warranty expires?

You’re faced with three choices: sell the car, chance your arm, or opt for an aftermarket warranty. Typically, you’ll pay anything from £100 to £500 a year, but in return you’ll be covered in the event of the failure of mechanical or electrical parts. Warrantywise has just released details of the top 10 car repair bills it paid in 2017, and the costs will send shockwaves through your wallet. All photos used are for illustrative purposes only.

10: Audi TT engine (£5,084)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

It’s worth pointing out that not all aftermarket car warranties are created equal. There are a number of different options out there, offering various levels of protection. Many will cover the major mechanical and electrical parts, but others might include protection against MOT failure and multimedia malfunction. In 2017, Warrantywise paid just over £5,000 when an engine failed on an Audi TT.

9: Mercedes-Benz C-Class sensors (£5,134)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

A similar figure was paid out for failure of the sensors on a Mercedes-Benz C-Class. We took a look on the Warrantywise website, where we were quoted £2,000 for a three-year warranty on a 2014 Mercedes-Benz C220. This includes a garage labour rate of up to £35 an hour and a single repair limit of £5,000. Increase these rates, and add the likes of multimedia, MOT and emissions cover to the package, and the cost will increase.

8: Porsche Cayenne oil leak (£5,494.38)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

Even something that appears to be a relatively minor issue can cost an arm and a leg to repair, like the £5,500 it cost to repair the oil leak on a Porsche Cayenne. If this doesn’t encourage you to investigate the cause of that puddle on your driveway, nothing will.

7. Ferrari 599 gearbox (£5,745.22)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

You wouldn’t buy a Ferrari 599 expecting to see running costs on a par with a Ford Fiesta, but finding £5,745 at the drop of a hat would be a stretch for most people. The Warrantywise website features a handy tool which provides an insight into the items most likely to go wrong on each car. The Ferrari dropdown menu includes everything from a 575M F1 gearbox (£6,161.21) to a 430 sensor (£2,171.09).

6. Lamborghini Aventador clutch (£5,954.02)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

But it’s important to stress that big bills aren’t the preserve of exotic supercars. Warrantywise paid an eye-watering £453.29 for a brake caliper for a Daewoo Kalos and £431.10 on a heater matrix for a Daewoo Tacuma. A latch on a Proton GEN-2 cost £320.03, while a new engine on a Kia Sorento weighed in at £2,950. Not quite Aventador clutch money, but in relative terms it’s quite a chunk.

5. Maybach 62S brakes (£6,110.94)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

The Maybach 62S is a lumbering beast of car, so you need to ensure the brakes are up to scratch. Spending £6,110 on the braking system should ensure the anchors are fit for purpose. Speaking of luxury motors, we took at look at Rolls-Royce, and discovered that Warrantywise has paid out for repair bills of up to £3,619.74 on the Phantom.

4. Dodge Journey gearbox (£6,262.54)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

Yes, somebody in the UK actually bought a Dodge Journey, and when the gearbox went, they probably wish they hadn’t. Fortunately for them, Warrantywise covered the cost, which came in at a staggering £6,262. There are many faults listed under the heading of ‘Dodge’, so a warranty is likely to be a good move.

3. Nissan GT-R gearbox (£6,271.38)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

On this evidence, the Nissan GT-R is a supercar-tamer with supercar-rivalling costs, should things go wrong. In addition to the £6,271 paid out in 2017, Warrantywise has previously forked out £9,500 and £6,187 for two separate gearboxes, and £4,890 for various engine faults.

2. Land Rover Discovery 4 engine (£8,527.80)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

The Warrantywise website makes for grim reading for anyone who has recently purchased a used Land Rover. The Range Rover Sport looks particularly troublesome, with the table filled with bills upwards of £2,200. But each one is dwarfed by the £8,527.80 claim for a new Discovery 4 engine in 2017. Ouch.

1. McLaren MP4-12C gearbox (£10,000)

Warranty company reveals the largest bills paid in 2017

Imagine being faced with the prospect of a new gearbox on a McLaren MP4-12C. We suspect that the round figure is based on the upper limit of the warranty cover, which would suggest that the final bill was even higher. MP4-12C owners might want to wrap their seven-speed dual clutch gearbox in cotton wool.

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Towing tips

In at the deep end: hints from learning to tow for the first time

Towing tips

I’m sitting in a £60,000 Mercedes-Benz E-Class All-Terrain, with an imposing twin-axle horse trailer attached to the tow bar. Facing me, on a narrow muddy track, is an identical E-Class All-Terrain with a matching horse trailer. The only good news is that our trailers don’t contain real horses, just ballast to replicate their weight. One of us needs to move to sort the gridlock.

I try to reverse, and the horse box decides it doesn’t want to play ball. No amount of steering wheel-twirling, or the calm reassurance of Dave the instructor, is going to fix this.

Instead, Dave suggests we tackle the daunting track to our left, climbing up a hill and with trees lining the deeply-rutted route.

This turns out to be less intimidating than it might sound. The E-Class All-Terrain isn’t fazed by the slippery hill, despite the trailer and hefty imitation pony inside it, and hauls itself up with ease. It’s the same coming back down, with the E-Class surefooted despite the weight pushing behind it.

The Mercedes certainly helped flatter my abilities, with a host of cameras and sensors making towing far easier. Having a qualified instructor alongside was perhaps the biggest advantage, saving us and the hypothetical horse from any danger.

First-time dramatics aside, towing doesn’t need to be difficult or challenging, and offers up a range of options. Be it holidaying with a caravan, moving horses around, or even lugging a race car to the track, there are plenty of reasons to start to tow.

Before you think about hitching up something extra to the rear of your car, there are a few things to consider first. Nobody likes a baptism of fire, especially when it might actually involve your own expensive trailer or caravan.

Towing tips

Towing tips


Possibly the most important thing to check before towing is your driving licence, with a range of restrictions based on when you passed your driving test.

For those who gained their licence before the 1st January 1997, a Category B licence will entitle you to tow any combination of car and trailer/caravan up to a maximum authorised mass (MAM) of 8,250kg.

Obtaining a licence after the 1st January 1997 restricts drivers to a vehicle with a MAM of 3,500kg, towing a trailer of up to 750kg. Drivers can also tow a trailer or caravan in excess of 750kg, providing the overall MAM of the combined outfit does not exceed 3,500kg, or have the trailer weigh more than the unladen weight of the towing vehicle.

To tow anything above these weights will require taking additional driving tests, with the GOV.UK website having more information, along with guidance on how to determine the relevant vehicle weights.


Regardless of what it says on your driving licence, investing in a training course designed to teach the basics of towing is money well spent.

Both the Caravan and Motorhome Club and The Camping and Caravanning Club offer bespoke courses, tailored to varying levels of caravanning experience. These cover the basics of health and safety, along with lessons in the art of reversing with a caravan attached.

If you’re looking to tow a trailer, the National Trailer and Towing Association will be able to help you find local driving schools offering lessons and coaching.


Going fast with a hefty caravan attached to the back of your car might be the least of your concerns, but powerful modern machinery can making towing seem relatively effortless.

As such, it’s important to remember that when towing a maximum speed limit of 60mph applies on dual carriageways and motorways, with 50mph on single carriageway routes. Towing also prevents you from using the furthest right-hand lane of a three-lane motorway.

Try to be courteous to other road users if you develop a queue of traffic behind while towing. Finding a safe place to pull over and let others pass is good practice.

Car considerations

Distilling the best car to tow with requires considering a number of different factors. From matching the permitted towing weight with your intended caravan or trailer, to ensuring that it’ll have enough power and torque to enable the whole outfit to move at a reasonable pace.

Diesel-engined 4×4 SUVs have become the preferred choice for caravanning in recent years, matching sizeable towing capacity with the ability to escape from a muddy campsite. It might explain why SUVs took almost every prize in the latest Towcar of the Year Awards, with the Skoda Kodiaq taking the top prize.

If you’re concerned about buying a diesel, however, there are alternative options. Both the plug-in hybrid Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV and electric Tesla Model X are capable of towing a caravan.

Buying a car with a reversing camera, especially one with bespoke modes for helping hitch a trailer, may also influence your decision making. A number of manufacturers, such as Volkswagen and Land Rover, also offer ‘Trailer Assist’ features that use semi-autonomous tech to make reversing easier.

Adding a tow bar


Towing tips

With so much technology loaded into modern cars, adding a tow bar is not a simple case of bolting on the first one you find. There is also legislation to take into account at present if you own a vehicle registered after the 1st August 1998, which must use an EC type-approved tow bar.

Most car manufacturers offer tow bars to fit their own specific models, and can even offer factory-fitted versions if ordering a car from new. Retractable or removable tow bars are popular, leaving a neater appearance to the rear of the car when not being used. A wealth of aftermarket suppliers also exist for those wanting to avoid dealership pricing.

Security and insurance

Towing tips

Thefts of trailers, particularly in rural areas, are endemic and often combined with the theft of plant and construction machinery. The fact they can be easily attached to the back of a car and driven away makes them an easy target. Caravans are also desirable, with estimates suggesting up to 3,000 are stolen every year in the UK.

All new caravans produced since 1992 have been registered with the CRiS database, making it easier to track and trace them if stolen. RFID tags are also used to allow easier identification by the police, even if criminals alter visible chassis numbers.

Heavy-duty wheel clamps, hitchlocks, and anchor posts can all be used to make it harder to steal your caravan or trailer. Just like with a car, alarms and tracking devices can also be fitted.

Most importantly, don’t forget to insure your trailer or caravan, even though it is not a legal requirement. Cover is recommended for protection should your latest purchase be stolen, or damaged whilst being towed. Most car policies do not automatically cover either trailers or caravans when being towed, or will have restrictions on cover. Check with your insurer, or speak to a specialist broker.

>NEXT: The best cars for towing your caravan